6,364 research outputs found

    Evaluation of liquid-based swab transport systems against the new approved CLSI M40-A2 standard

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    © Copyright 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Following revised information pertaining to newer swab types and testing protocols in the new CLSI M40-A2 standard, we evaluated three liquid swab transport systems for the recovery of aerobic, anaerobic, and fastidious organisms at room temperature and at 4°C. All tested liquid swab transport systems were fully compliant with the M40-A2 standard, with acceptable performance at both temperatures after the full specified holding period, using both qualitative (roll-plate) and quantitative (swab elution) methods

    Susceptibility testing challenges with ceftaroline, MRSA, and a 1-mg/L breakpoint

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    Objectives A 1 mg/L susceptibility breakpoint for ceftaroline and staphylococci is universally agreed; EUCAST counts MIC >1 mg/L as resistant whereas CLSI and FDA count 2 mg/L as intermediate and >2 mg/L as resistant. We investigated whether routine diagnostic tests reliably distinguish MICs of 1 versus 2 mg/L. Methods Thirty-five UK laboratories collected Staphylococcus aureus isolates and performed tests with 5 μg (as EUCAST) or 30 μg (as CLSI) discs and either confluent growth on Mueller–Hinton agar (as EUCAST and CLSI) or semi-confluent growth on Iso-Sensitest agar (as BSAC). They also ran Etests for MRSA. Reference MICs were determined centrally by CLSI and BSAC agar dilution. Results We obtained paired local disc and central MIC results for 1607 S. aureus (33% MRSA). EUCAST's zone breakpoint recognized 56% of isolates found resistant in MIC tests, but the positive predictive value (PPV) for resistance was 11.0%; corresponding proportions by CLSI testing were 28.0% and 13.4%. The BSAC disc method detected 25% of resistant isolates, with a PPV of 18.2%. Essential agreement, ±1 dilution, of local Etests and central agar MICs was >95%, but only 20% of the isolates found non-susceptible by agar dilution were found non-susceptible by Etest and vice versa. Review for isolates with the modal MIC (0.25 mg/L) indicated that the same laboratories reported large or small zones irrespective of disc and method, implying systematic bias. Conclusions MRSA with ceftaroline MICs of 1 and 2 mg/L were poorly discriminated by routine methods. Solutions lie in greater standardization, automation or dosages justifying a higher breakpoint

    In Vitro Activities of the Novel Investigational Tetrazoles VT-1161 and VT-1598 Compared to the Triazole Antifungals against Azole-Resistant Strains and Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans

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    The fungal Cyp51-specific inhibitors VT-1161 and VT-1598 have emerged as promising new 24 therapies to combat fungal infections, including Candida spp. To evaluate the in vitro activity of 25 these compounds in comparison to other available azoles, minimum inhibitory concentrations 26 (MICs) were determined for VT-1161, VT-1598, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and 27 posaconazole against 68 C. albicans clinical isolates well-characterized for azole resistance 28 mechanisms and mutant strains representing individual azole resistance mechanisms. VT-1161 29 and VT-1598 demonstrated potent activity (geometric mean MICs ≤0.15 μg/mL) against 30 predominantly fluconazole-resistant isolates. However, five of 68 isolates exhibited MICs 31 greater than six dilutions (>2 μg/mL) to both tetrazoles compared to fluconazole-susceptible 32 isolates. Four of these isolates likewise exhibited high MICs beyond the upper limit for all 33 triazoles tested. A premature stop codon in ERG3 likely explained the high-level resistance in 34 one isolate. VT-1598 was effective against strains with hyperactive Tac1, Mrr1, and Upc2 35 transcription factors and against most ERG11 mutant strains. VT-1161 MICs were elevated for 36 hyperactive Tac1 strains and two strains with Erg11 substitutions (Y132F and Y132F&K143R), 37 but showed activity against strains with hyperactive forms of Mrr1 and Upc2. VT-1161 had 38 elevated MICs against a minority of clinical isolates that were more susceptible to itraconazole 39 (3), voriconazole (1), or posaconazole (5). While mutations affecting Erg3 activity appear to 40 greatly reduce susceptibility to VT-1161 and VT-1598, the elevated MICs of both tetrazoles for 41 four isolates could not be explained by known azole resistance mechanisms, suggesting the 42 presence of undescribed resistance mechanisms to triazole- and tetrazole-based sterol 43 demethylase inhibitors

    Population Genetics of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal in 2010: Evidence on the Origin of the Haitian Outbreak

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    Cholera continues to be an important cause of human infections, and outbreaks are often observed after natural disasters, such as the one following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Once the cholera outbreak was confirmed, rumors spread that the disease was brought to Haiti by a battalion of Nepalese soldiers serving as United Nations peacekeepers. This possible connection has never been confirmed. We used whole-genome sequence typing (WGST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to characterize 24 recent Vibrio cholerae isolates from Nepal and evaluate the suggested epidemiological link with the Haitian outbreak. The isolates were obtained from 30 July to 1 November 2010 from five different districts in Nepal. We compared the 24 genomes to 10 previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates, including 3 from the Haitian outbreak (began July 2010). Antimicrobial susceptibility and PFGE patterns were consistent with an epidemiological link between the isolates from Nepal and Haiti. WGST showed that all 24 V. cholerae isolates from Nepal belonged to a single monophyletic group that also contained isolates from Bangladesh and Haiti. The Nepalese isolates were divided into four closely related clusters. One cluster contained three Nepalese isolates and three Haitian isolates that were almost identical, with only 1- or 2-bp differences. Results in this study are consistent with Nepal as the origin of the Haitian outbreak. This highlights how rapidly infectious diseases might be transmitted globally through international travel and how public health officials need advanced molecular tools along with standard epidemiological analyses to quickly determine the sources of outbreaks. IMPORTANCE Cholera is one of the ancient classical diseases and particularly prone to cause major outbreaks following major natural disasters, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, where the normal separation between sewage and drinking water is destroyed. This was the case following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Rumors spread that the disease was brought to Haiti by a battalion of Nepalese soldiers serving as United Nations peacekeepers. This possible connection has never been confirmed. Sequencing the genomes of bacteria can give detailed information on whether isolates from different sites share a common origin. We used this technology to sequence isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Nepal, identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and compare these high-resolution genotypes to the complete genome sequences of isolates from the Haiti outbreak. We provide support for the hypothesis that the isolates were brought to Haiti from Nepal

    Comparative activity of carbapenem testing (the COMPACT study) in Turkey

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Recent evidence indicates that Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, the most common of which are <it>Pseudomonas </it>spp., <it>Enterobacteriaceae</it>, and <it>Acinetobacter baumannii</it>, are frequent causes of hospital-acquired infections. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro activity of doripenem and comparator carbapenem antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical isolates collected from COMParative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) study centres in Turkey.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Ten centres in Turkey were invited to submit <it>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</it>, <it>Enterobacteriaceae</it>, and other Gram-negative isolates from intensive care unit (ICU)/non-ICU patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections, bloodstream infections, or nosocomial pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia, between May and October 2008. Susceptibility was determined by each centre using E-test. A central laboratory performed species confirmation as well as limited susceptibility and quality-control testing.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Five hundred and ninety six isolates were collected. MIC<sub>90 </sub>values for doripenem, meropenem, and imipenem, respectively, were 32, ≥ 64, and ≥ 64 mg/L against <it>Pseudomonas </it>spp.; 0.12, 0.12, and 0.5 mg/L against <it>Enterobacteriaceae</it>; and ≥ 64 mg/L for each against other Gram-negative isolates. In determining the susceptibility of hospital isolates of selected Gram-negative pathogens to doripenem, imipenem, and meropenem, we found that against all pathogens combined, the MIC<sub>90 </sub>for ICU compared with non-ICU isolates was higher.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Doripenem showed similar or slightly better activity than meropenem and better activity than imipenem against the Gram-negative pathogens collected in Turkey.</p

    WCK 4234, a novel diazabicyclooctane potentiating carbapenems against Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter with class A, C and D β-lactamases

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    Background: Several diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs) are under development as inhibitors of Class A and C -lactamases. Inhibition of OXA (Class D) carbapenemases is variable, with those of Acinetobacter spp. remaining notably resistant. We describe a novel DBO, WCK 4234 (Wockhardt), with distinctive activity against OXA carbapenemases.  Methods: MICs of imipenem and meropenem were determined by CLSI agar dilution with WCK 4234 added at 4 or 8 mg/L. Test organisms were clinical Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with carbapenemases or carbapenem resistance via porin loss plus AmpC or ESBL activity. AmpC mutants were also tested.  Results: WCK 4234, which lacked direct antibacterial activity, strongly potentiated imipenem and meropenem against Enterobacteriaceae with OXA-48/181, KPC enzymes, or with combinations of impermeability and AmpC or ESBL activity, with MICs reduced to <2 mg/L in almost all cases. Carbapenems likewise were potentiated against P. aeruginosa (n=2) with OXA-181 enzyme, with MICs reduced from 64-128 mg/L to 2-8 mg/L and against A. baumannii with OXA carbapenemases, particularly OXA-23 or hyperproduced OXA-51, with MICs reduced to <2 mg/L for 9/10 acinetobacters with OXA-23 enzyme. Carbapenems were not potentiated against Enterobacteriaceae or non-fermenters with metallo--lactamases.   Conclusion: WCK 4234 distinctively overcame resistance mediated by OXA-type carbapenemases, including in A. baumannii. It behaved similarly to other DBOs against strains with KPC carbapenemases or combinations of impermeability and ESBL or AmpC activity

    Etiologic and epidemiologic analysis of bacterial infectious upper respiratory disease in Thoroughbred horses at the Seoul Race Park

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    Infectious upper respiratory disease (IURD) of Thoroughbred racehorses has been a frequent problem (29.6% of incidence) at the Seoul Race Park (Korea). Risk factors for IURD include the season with a high transfer rate (summer and fall), the stabling period (≤ 3 months), and age (2 to 3 years old), suggesting that the movement and new environment may have depressed the immune system of the horses and decreased their ability to respond properly to pathogens. The bacterial strains (n = 98) isolated from IURD horses included Pseudomonas spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and zooepidemicus

    Evaluation of the Broth Microdilution Method Using 2,3-Diphenyl-5-thienyl-(2)-tetrazolium Chloride for Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Susceptibility Testing

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    As the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection has been increasing recently in Korea, the importance of drug susceptibility test for clinical isolates of mycobacteria has become larger. In this study we determined the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical isolates of M. fortuitum and M. abscessus in Korea, and evaluated the efficacy of a modified broth microdilution method using 2,3-diphenyl-5-thienyl-(2)-tetrazolium chloride (STC), in terms of its ability to provide accurate and easy-to-read minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) endpoints for the susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Most isolates of M. fortuitum and M. abscessus in Korea are susceptible or intermediately susceptible to amikacin, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin. Many isolates of M. fortuitum are susceptible to doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem, while many M. abscessus isolates are resistant to these drugs. In the present study, the modified broth microdilution method using STC was found to be reliable, easy to read, and inexpensive for M. fortuitum and M. abscessus susceptibility testing. The modified colorimetric MIC testing method using STC was proven to be a useful surrogate for RGM antibiotic susceptibility testing

    Colistin-sparing regimens against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae isolates: Combination of tigecycline or doxycycline and gentamicin or amikacin

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    AbstractBackground/PurposeIn vitro studies of the combination of an aminoglycoside with tigecycline or doxycycline against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae isolates are rarely published. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the combination regimens.MethodsThirteen genetically different KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were randomly selected. Drug concentrations of amikacin, gentamicin, tigecycline, and doxycycline were adjusted to 1-, 1/2-, and 1/4-fold of respective minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Each drug alone or the combinations of amikacin or gentamicin with tigecycline or doxycycline were tested by combination studies.ResultsTreatment with the 1× MIC concentration in combinations of amikacin or gentamicin and tigecycline or doxycycline for 24 hours resulted in bactericidal activity of 84–100% in the isolates. Treatment with 1/2× MIC combinations resulted in synergism of 69–100% in the isolates. Notably, doxycycline plus gentamicin or amikacin was synergistic for all tested isolates. However, bactericidal or synergistic effect was barely evident following 1/4× MIC combinations. There was no antagonism in any of the combination regimens.ConclusionEnhanced activity was noted following treatment with doxycycline combined with gentamicin or amikacin against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates, warranting further in vitro and animal investigations before clinical application
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