672 research outputs found

    Suppression of inhomogeneous broadening in rf spectroscopy of optically trapped atoms

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    We present a novel method for reducing the inhomogeneous frequency broadening in the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of optically trapped atoms. This reduction is achieved by the addition of a weak light field, spatially mode-matched with the trapping field and whose frequency is tuned in-between the two hyperfine levels. We experimentally demonstrate the new scheme with Rb 85 atoms, and report a 50-fold narrowing of the rf spectrum

    A Low CMB Quadrupole from Dark Energy Isocurvature Perturbations

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    We explicate the origin of the temperature quadrupole in the adiabatic dark energy model and explore the mechanism by which scale invariant isocurvature dark energy perturbations can lead to its sharp suppression. The model requires anticorrelated curvature and isocurvature fluctuations and is favored by the WMAP data at about the 95% confidence level in a flat scale invariant model. In an inflationary context, the anticorrelation may be established if the curvature fluctuations originate from a variable decay rate of the inflaton; such models however tend to overpredict gravitational waves. This isocurvature model can in the future be distinguished from alternatives involving a reduction in large scale power or modifications to the sound speed of the dark energy through the polarization and its cross correlation with the temperature. The isocurvature model retains the same polarization fluctuations as its adiabatic counterpart but reduces the correlated temperature fluctuations. We present a pedagogical discussion of dark energy fluctuations in a quintessence and k-essence context in the Appendix.Comment: 16 pages, 12 figures, typos in Table 1 correcte

    Density perturbations in the brane-world

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    In Randall-Sundrum-type brane-world cosmologies, density perturbations generate Weyl curvature in the bulk, which in turn backreacts on the brane via stress-energy perturbations. On large scales, the perturbation equations contain a closed system on the brane, which may be solved without solving for the bulk perturbations. Bulk effects produce a non-adiabatic mode, even when the matter perturbations are adiabatic, and alter the background dynamics. As a consequence, the standard evolution of large-scale fluctuations in general relativity is modified. The metric perturbation on large-scales is not constant during high-energy inflation. It is constant during the radiation era, except at most during the very beginning, if the energy is high enough.Comment: Additional arguments and minor corrections; version accepted by Phys. Rev.

    Dust in the bright supernova remnant N49 in the LMC

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    We investigate the dust associated with the supernova remnant (SNR) N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) as observed with the Herschel Space Observatory. N49 is unusually bright because of an interaction with a molecular cloud along its eastern edge. We have used PACS and SPIRE to measure the far IR flux densities of the entire SNR and of a bright region on the eastern edge of the SNR where the SNR shock is encountering the molecular cloud. Using these fluxes supplemented with archival data at shorter wavelengths, we estimate the dust mass associated with N49 to be about 10 Msun. The bulk of the dust in our simple two-component model has a temperature of 20-30 K, similar to that of nearby molecular clouds. Unfortunately, as a result of the limited angular resolution of Herschel at the wavelengths sampled with SPIRE, the uncertainties are fairly large. Assuming this estimate of the dust mass associated with the SNR is approximately correct, it is probable that most of the dust in the SNR arises from regions where the shock speed is too low to produce significant X-ray emission. The total amount of warm 50-60 K dust is ~0.1 or 0.4 Msun, depending on whether the dust is modeled in terms of carbonaceous or silicate grains. This provides a firm lower limit to the amount of shock heated dust in N49.Comment: accepted by the Astronomy & Astrophysics Lette

    Anisotropy dissipation in brane-world inflation

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    We examine the behavior of an anisotropic brane-world in the presence of inflationary scalar fields. We show that, contrary to naive expectations, a large anisotropy does not adversely affect inflation. On the contrary, a large initial anisotropy introduces more damping into the scalar field equation of motion, resulting in greater inflation. The rapid decay of anisotropy in the brane-world significantly increases the class of initial conditions from which the observed universe could have originated. This generalizes a similar result in general relativity. A unique feature of Bianchi I brane-world cosmology appears to be that for scalar fields with a large kinetic term the initial expansion of the universe is quasi-isotropic. The universe grows more anisotropic during an intermediate transient regime until anisotropy finally disappears during inflationary expansion.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures; minor typo corrected in Eq. (16); matches version to appear in Phy Rev

    Modulated Inflation

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    We have studied modulated inflation that generates curvature perturbation from light-field fluctuation. As discussed in previous works, even if the fluctuation of the inflaton itself does not generate the curvature perturbation at the horizon crossing, fluctuation of a light field may induce fluctuation for the end-line of inflation and this may lead to generation of cosmological perturbation ``at the end of the inflation''. Our scenario is different from those that are based on the fluctuations of the boundary of the inflaton trajectory, as clearly explained in this paper by using the δN\delta N formalism. In this paper, we will consider the perturbation of the inflaton velocity that can be induced by a light field other than the inflaton. We also explain the crucial difference from the standard multi-field inflation model. We show concrete examples of the modulated inflation scenario in which non-gaussianity can be generated. We also discuss the running of the non-gaussianity parameter.Comment: 17pages, k^2/a^2 is included, accepted for publication in PL

    Email for clinical communication between healthcare professionals

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    Email is one of the most widely used methods of communication, but its use in healthcare is still uncommon. Where email communication has been utilised in health care, its purposes have included clinical communication between healthcare professionals, but the effects of using email in this way are not well known. We updated a 2012 review of the use of email for two-way clinical communication between healthcare professionals

    Ten simple rules for providing effective bioinformatics research support.

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    Life scientists are increasingly turning to high-throughput sequencing technologies in their research programs, owing to the enormous potential of these methods. In a parallel manner, the number of core facilities that provide bioinformatics support are also increasing. Notably, the generation of complex large datasets has necessitated the development of bioinformatics support core facilities that aid laboratory scientists with cost-effective and efficient data management, analysis, and interpretation. In this article, we address the challenges-related to communication, good laboratory practice, and data handling-that may be encountered in core support facilities when providing bioinformatics support, drawing on our own experiences working as support bioinformaticians on multidisciplinary research projects. Most importantly, the article proposes a list of guidelines that outline how these challenges can be preemptively avoided and effectively managed to increase the value of outputs to the end user, covering the entire research project lifecycle, including experimental design, data analysis, and management (i.e., sharing and storage). In addition, we highlight the importance of clear and transparent communication, comprehensive preparation, appropriate handling of samples and data using monitoring systems, and the employment of appropriate tools and standard operating procedures to provide effective bioinformatics support

    Empirical Potential Function for Simplified Protein Models: Combining Contact and Local Sequence-Structure Descriptors

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    An effective potential function is critical for protein structure prediction and folding simulation. Simplified protein models such as those requiring only CαC_\alpha or backbone atoms are attractive because they enable efficient search of the conformational space. We show residue specific reduced discrete state models can represent the backbone conformations of proteins with small RMSD values. However, no potential functions exist that are designed for such simplified protein models. In this study, we develop optimal potential functions by combining contact interaction descriptors and local sequence-structure descriptors. The form of the potential function is a weighted linear sum of all descriptors, and the optimal weight coefficients are obtained through optimization using both native and decoy structures. The performance of the potential function in test of discriminating native protein structures from decoys is evaluated using several benchmark decoy sets. Our potential function requiring only backbone atoms or CαC_\alpha atoms have comparable or better performance than several residue-based potential functions that require additional coordinates of side chain centers or coordinates of all side chain atoms. By reducing the residue alphabets down to size 5 for local structure-sequence relationship, the performance of the potential function can be further improved. Our results also suggest that local sequence-structure correlation may play important role in reducing the entropic cost of protein folding.Comment: 20 pages, 5 figures, 4 tables. In press, Protein

    Large-scale cosmological perturbations on the brane

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    In brane-world cosmologies of Randall-Sundrum type, we show that evolution of large-scale curvature perturbations may be determined on the brane, without solving the bulk perturbation equations. The influence of the bulk gravitational field on the brane is felt through a projected Weyl tensor which behaves effectively like an imperfect radiation fluid with anisotropic stress. We define curvature perturbations on uniform density surfaces for both the matter and Weyl fluids, and show that their evolution on large scales follows directly from the energy conservation equations for each fluid. The total curvature perturbation is not necessarily constant for adiabatic matter perturbations, but can change due to the Weyl entropy perturbation. To relate this curvature perturbation to the longitudinal gauge metric potentials requires knowledge of the Weyl anisotropic stress which is not determined by the equations on the brane. We discuss the implications for large-angle anisotropies on the cosmic microwave background sky.Comment: 13 pages, latex with revtex, no figure
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