788 research outputs found

    Optimal Prandtl number for heat transfer in rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection

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    Numerical data for the heat transfer as a function of the Prandtl (Pr) and Rossby (Ro) numbers in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection are presented for Rayleigh number Ra = 10^8. When Ro is fixed the heat transfer enhancement with respect to the non-rotating value shows a maximum as function of Pr. This maximum is due to the reduced efficiency of Ekman pumping when Pr becomes too small or too large. When Pr becomes small, i.e. for large thermal diffusivity, the heat that is carried by the vertical vortices spreads out in the middle of the cell, and Ekman pumping thus becomes less efficient. For higher Pr the thermal boundary layers (BLs) are thinner than the kinetic BLs and therefore the Ekman vortices do not reach the thermal BL. This means that the fluid that is sucked into the vertical vortices is colder than for lower Pr which limits the efficiency of the upwards heat transfer.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figure

    Heat transport and flow structure in rotating Rayleigh-B\'enard convection

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    Here we summarize the results from our direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experimental measurements on rotating Rayleigh-B\'enard (RB) convection. Our experiments and simulations are performed in cylindrical samples with an aspect ratio \Gamma varying from 1/2 to 2. Here \Gamma=D/L, where D and L are the diameter and height of the sample, respectively. When the rotation rate is increased, while a fixed temperature difference between the hot bottom and cold top plate is maintained, a sharp increase in the heat transfer is observed before the heat transfer drops drastically at stronger rotation rates. Here we focus on the question of how the heat transfer enhancement with respect to the non-rotating case depends on the Rayleigh number Ra, the Prandtl number Pr, and the rotation rate, indicated by the Rossby number Ro. Special attention will be given to the influence of the aspect ratio on the rotation rate that is required to get heat transport enhancement. In addition, we will discuss the relation between the heat transfer and the large scale flow structures that are formed in the different regimes of rotating RB convection and how the different regimes can be identified in experiments and simulations.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figure

    Alternative statistical-mechanical descriptions of decaying two-dimensional turbulence in terms of "patches" and "points"

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    Numerical and analytical studies of decaying, two-dimensional (2D) Navier-Stokes (NS) turbulence at high Reynolds numbers are reported. The effort is to determine computable distinctions between two different formulations of maximum entropy predictions for the decayed, late-time state. Both formulations define an entropy through a somewhat ad hoc discretization of vorticity to the "particles" of which statistical mechanical methods are employed to define an entropy, before passing to a mean-field limit. In one case, the particles are delta-function parallel "line" vortices ("points" in two dimensions), and in the other, they are finite-area, mutually-exclusive convected "patches" of vorticity which in the limit of zero area become "points." We use time-dependent, spectral-method direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations to see if initial conditions which should relax to different late-time states under the two formulations actually do so.Comment: 21 pages, 24 figures: submitted to "Physics of Fluids

    DSMC-LBM mapping scheme for rarefied and non-rarefied gas flows

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    We present the formulation of a kinetic mapping scheme between the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) which is at the basis of the hybrid model used to couple the two methods in view of efficiently and accurately simulate isothermal flows characterized by variable rarefaction effects. Owing to the kinetic nature of the LBM, the procedure we propose ensures to accurately couple DSMC and LBM at a larger Kn number than usually done in traditional hybrid DSMC-Navier-Stokes equation models. We show the main steps of the mapping algorithm and illustrate details of the implementation. Good agreement is found between the moments of the single particle distribution function as obtained from the mapping scheme and from independent LBM or DSMC simulations at the grid nodes where the coupling is imposed. We also show results on the application of the hybrid scheme based on a simpler mapping scheme for plane Poiseuille flow at finite Kn number. Potential gains in the computational efficiency assured by the application of the coupling scheme are estimated for the same flow.Comment: Submitted to Journal of Computational Scienc

    Finite-size effects lead to supercritical bifurcations in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-B\'enard convection

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    In turbulent thermal convection in cylindrical samples of aspect ratio \Gamma = D/L (D is the diameter and L the height) the Nusselt number Nu is enhanced when the sample is rotated about its vertical axis, because of the formation of Ekman vortices that extract additional fluid out of thermal boundary layers at the top and bottom. We show from experiments and direct numerical simulations that the enhancement occurs only above a bifurcation point at a critical inverse Rossby number 1/\Ro_c, with 1/\Ro_c \propto 1/\Gamma. We present a Ginzburg-Landau like model that explains the existence of a bifurcation at finite 1/\Ro_c as a finite-size effect. The model yields the proportionality between 1/\Ro_c and 1/Γ1/\Gamma and is consistent with several other measured or computed system properties.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    The role of Stewartson and Ekman layers in turbulent rotating Rayleigh-B\'enard convection

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    When the classical Rayleigh-B\'enard (RB) system is rotated about its vertical axis roughly three regimes can be identified. In regime I (weak rotation) the large scale circulation (LSC) is the dominant feature of the flow. In regime II (moderate rotation) the LSC is replaced by vertically aligned vortices. Regime III (strong rotation) is characterized by suppression of the vertical velocity fluctuations. Using results from experiments and direct numerical simulations of RB convection for a cell with a diameter-to-height aspect ratio equal to one at Ra108109Ra \sim 10^8-10^9 (Pr=46Pr=4-6) and 01/Ro250 \lesssim 1/Ro \lesssim 25 we identified the characteristics of the azimuthal temperature profiles at the sidewall in the different regimes. In regime I the azimuthal wall temperature profile shows a cosine shape and a vertical temperature gradient due to plumes that travel with the LSC close to the sidewall. In regime II and III this cosine profile disappears, but the vertical wall temperature gradient is still observed. It turns out that the vertical wall temperature gradient in regimes II and III has a different origin than that observed in regime I. It is caused by boundary layer dynamics characteristic for rotating flows, which drives a secondary flow that transports hot fluid up the sidewall in the lower part of the container and cold fluid downwards along the sidewall in the top part.Comment: 21 pages, 12 figure

    Clustering of vertically constrained passive particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence

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    We analyze the dynamics of small particles vertically confined, by means of a linear restoring force, to move within a horizontal fluid slab in a three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous isotropic turbulent velocity field. The model that we introduce and study is possibly the simplest description for the dynamics of small aquatic organisms that, due to swimming, active regulation of their buoyancy, or any other mechanism, maintain themselves in a shallow horizontal layer below the free surface of oceans or lakes. By varying the strength of the restoring force, we are able to control the thickness of the fluid slab in which the particles can move. This allows us to analyze the statistical features of the system over a wide range of conditions going from a fully 3D incompressible flow (corresponding to the case of no confinement) to the extremely confined case corresponding to a two-dimensional slice. The background 3D turbulent velocity field is evolved by means of fully resolved direct numerical simulations. Whenever some level of vertical confinement is present, the particle trajectories deviate from that of fluid tracers and the particles experience an effectively compressible velocity field. Here, we have quantified the compressibility, the preferential concentration of the particles, and the correlation dimension by changing the strength of the restoring force. The main result is that there exists a particular value of the force constant, corresponding to a mean slab depth approximately equal to a few times the Kolmogorov length scale, that maximizes the clustering of the particles

    Regime transitions in stratified shear flows: the link between horizontal and inclined ducts

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    We present an analytical model that provides the transition curves between different regimes of stratified shear flows in inclined ducts for high Schmidt number values. These curves are described by constant values of a generalized Reynolds number multiplied by the aspect ratio of the duct, showing good agreement with previous experimental results. The generalized Reynolds number is obtained by extending to inclined ducts the solution of a one-dimensional model of a stratified shear flow in a horizontal duct within a regime where advection is neglected in the momentum equation but included in the density transport equation
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