6,357 research outputs found

    Search for scalar leptons in e+e- collisions

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    Search for pair production of sleptons have been performed using the data collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP in the year 2000. The centre-of-mass energy ranges from 204 to 209 GeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 207.3 pb-1. No evidence for the production of these particles was found. The number of candidates observed is consistent with the background expected from four-fermion processes and gamma-gamma interactions. Improved mass limits at 95% C.L. are reported

    The hard scale in the exclusive rho-meson production in diffractive DIS

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    We re-examine the issue of the pQCD factorization scale in the exclusive rho production in diffractive DIS from the k_t-factorization point of view. We find that this scale differs significantly from, and possesses much flatter Q^2 behavior than widely used value (Q^2 + m_\rho^2)/4. With these results in mind, we discuss the Q^2 shape of the rho meson production cross section. We introduce rescaled cross sections, which might provide further insight into the dynamics of rho production. We also comment on the recent ZEUS observation of energy-independent ratio sigma(gamma* p --> rho p) / sigma_{tot}(gamma*p).Comment: 14 pages, 7 eps figure

    Analysis of ozone and nitric acid in spring and summer Arctic pollution using aircraft, ground-based, satellite observations and MOZART-4 model: source attribution and partitioning

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    In this paper, we analyze tropospheric O_3 together with HNO_3 during the POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport) program, combining observations and model results. Aircraft observations from the NASA ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and NOAA ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) campaigns during spring and summer of 2008 are used together with the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4) to assist in the interpretation of the observations in terms of the source attribution and transport of O_3 and HNO_3 into the Arctic (north of 60° N). The MOZART-4 simulations reproduce the aircraft observations generally well (within 15%), but some discrepancies in the model are identified and discussed. The observed correlation of O_3 with HNO_3 is exploited to evaluate the MOZART-4 model performance for different air mass types (fresh plumes, free troposphere and stratospheric-contaminated air masses). Based on model simulations of O_3 and HNO_3 tagged by source type and region, we find that the anthropogenic pollution from the Northern Hemisphere is the dominant source of O3 and HNO3 in the Arctic at pressures greater than 400 hPa, and that the stratospheric influence is the principal contribution at pressures less 400 hPa. During the summer, intense Russian fire emissions contribute some amount to the tropospheric columns of both gases over the American sector of the Arctic. North American fire emissions (California and Canada) also show an important impact on tropospheric ozone in the Arctic boundary layer. Additional analysis of tropospheric O_3 measurements from ground-based FTIR and from the IASI satellite sounder made at the Eureka (Canada) and Thule (Greenland) polar sites during POLARCAT has been performed using the tagged contributions. It demonstrates the capability of these instruments for observing pollution at northern high latitudes. Differences between contributions from the sources to the tropospheric columns as measured by FTIR and IASI are discussed in terms of vertical sensitivity associated with these instruments. The first analysis of O_3 tropospheric columns observed by the IASI satellite instrument over the Arctic is also provided. Despite its limited vertical sensitivity in the lowermost atmospheric layers, we demonstrate that IASI is capable of detecting low-altitude pollution transported into the Arctic with some limitations

    Intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations with AIRS and IASI

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    Gravity waves are an important driver for the atmospheric circulation and have substantial impact on weather and climate. Satellite instruments offer excellent opportunities to study gravity waves on a global scale. This study focuses on observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aqua satellite and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard the European MetOp satellites. The main aim of this study is an intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations of both instruments. In particular, we analyzed AIRS and IASI 4.3 μm brightness temperature measurements, which directly relate to stratospheric temperature. Three case studies showed that AIRS and IASI provide a clear and consistent picture of the temporal development of individual gravity wave events. Statistical comparisons based on a five-year period of measurements (2008-2012) showed similar spatial and temporal patterns of gravity wave activity. However, the statistical comparisons also revealed systematic differences of variances between AIRS and IASI (about 45%) that we attribute to the different spatial measurement characteristics of both instruments. We also found differences between day- and nighttime data (about 30%) that are partly due to the local time variations of the gravity wave sources. While AIRS has been used successfully in many previous gravity wave studies, IASI data are applied here for the first time for that purpose. Our study shows that gravity wave observations from different hyperspectral infrared sounders such as AIRS and IASI can be directly related to each other, if instrument-specific characteristics such as different noise levels and spatial resolution and sampling are carefully considered. The ability to combine observations from different satellites provides an opportunity to create a long-term record, which is an exciting prospect for future climatological studies of stratospheric gravity wave activity

    Tropospheric methanol observations from space: retrieval evaluation and constraints on the seasonality of biogenic emissions

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    Methanol retrievals from nadir-viewing space-based sensors offer powerful new information for quantifying methanol emissions on a global scale. Here we apply an ensemble of aircraft observations over North America to evaluate new methanol measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Aura satellite, and combine the TES data with observations from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp-A satellite to investigate the seasonality of methanol emissions from northern midlatitude ecosystems. Using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as an intercomparison platform, we find that the TES retrieval performs well when the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are above 0.5, in which case the model : TES regressions are generally consistent with the model : aircraft comparisons. Including retrievals with DOFS below 0.5 degrades the comparisons, as these are excessively influenced by the a priori. The comparisons suggest DOFS > 0.5 as a minimum threshold for interpreting retrievals of trace gases with a weak tropospheric signal. We analyze one full year of satellite observations and find that GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.1 biogenic emissions, underestimates observed methanol concentrations throughout the midlatitudes in springtime, with the timing of the seasonal peak in model emissions 1-2 months too late. We attribute this discrepancy to an underestimate of emissions from new leaves in MEGAN, and apply the satellite data to better quantify the seasonal change in methanol emissions for midlatitude ecosystems. The derived parameters (relative emission factors of 11.0, 1.0, 0.05 and 8.6 for new, growing, mature, and old leaves, respectively, plus a leaf area index activity factor of 0.75 for expanding canopies with leaf area index < 2.0) provide a more realistic simulation of seasonal methanol concentrations in midlatitudes on the basis of IASI, TES, and ground-based measurements

    Angular distributions in hard exclusive production of pion pairs

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    Using the leading order amplitudes of hard exclusive electroproduction of pion pairs we have analyzed the angular distribution of the two produced particles. At leading twist a pion pair can be produced only in an isovector or an isoscalar state. We show that certain components of the angular distribution only get contributions from the interference of the I=1 and the (much smaller) I=0 amplitude. Therefore our predictions prove to be a good probe of isospin zero pion pair production. We predict effects of a measurable size that could be observed at experiments like HERMES. We also discuss how hard exclusive pion pair production can provide us with new information on the effective chiral Lagrangian.Comment: 17 pages, version to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Partonic structure of pi and rho mesons from data on hard (semi)exclusive production of two pions off nucleon

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    We fitted the pi-pi mass distribution in the range 0.5 < mpipi < 1.1 GeV measured in hard exclusive positron-proton reactions at HERA by the form dictated by QCD at leading twist level. Extracted parameters are related to valence quark distribution in the pion, and to the pion and rho meson distribution amplitudes. We obtain, for the first time, a measurement of the second Gegenbauer coefficient of the rho meson distribution amplitude: a2(ρ)=0.10±0.20a_2^{(\rho)}= -0.10\pm 0.20 for a photon virtuality of =21.2 GeV^2.Comment: 12 pages, two figures. References and discussion are adde
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