9,878 research outputs found

    The Supply and Demand Sides of Judicial Policy-making (Or, Why Be So Positive about the Judicialization of Politics?)

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    A major reason that many people are intensely interested in who sits on the Supreme Court is that legal decisions can have great influence on the effectuation or frustration of political objectives. Clayton does not view the trend toward the judicialization of politics as necessarily antithetical to democratic values because Court decisions are within the mainstream of contemporary political values and electoral preferences


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    Biofuel, Certification, Sustainability, Deforestation, Food Prices, Ethanol, Biodiesel, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, O13,

    Regional mapping of the crustal structure in southern California from receiver functions

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    Lateral variations of the crustal structure in southern California are determined from receiver function (RF) studies using data from the Southern California Seismic Network broadband stations and Los Angeles Regional Seismic Experiment surveys. The results include crustal thickness estimates at the stations themselves, and where possible, cross sections are drawn. The large-scale Moho depth variation pattern generally correlates well with the current status of the Mesozoic batholith: Deep Moho of 35–39 km is observed beneath the western Peninsula Ranges, Sierra Nevada, and San Bernardino Mountains, where the batholith is relatively intact, and shallow Moho of 26–32 km is observed in the Mojave Desert, where the batholith is highly deformed and disrupted. High-resolution lateral variations of the crustal structure for individual geographic provinces are investigated, and distinctive features are identified. The crustal structure is strongly heterogeneous beneath the central Transverse Ranges, and deep Moho of 36–39 km is locally observed beneath several station groups in the western San Gabriel Mountains. Moho is relatively flat and smooth beneath the western Mojave Desert but gets shallower and complicated to the east. Anomalous RFs are observed at two stations in the eastern Mojave Desert, where a Moho step of ∼8–10 km is found between the NW and SE back-azimuthal groups of station DAN in the Fenner Valley. Asymmetric extension of the Salton Trough is inferred from the Moho geometry. Depth extension of several major faults, such as the San Andreas Fault and San Gabriel Fault, to the Moho is inferred

    Crustal structure and apparent tectonic underplating from receiver function analysis in South Island, New Zealand

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    We utilize seismic converted phases on more than 700 receiver functions calculated for 42 stations in the South Island, New Zealand, to infer crustal and uppermost mantle structure. We determine the crustal thickness from direct observations of conversion from the Moho interface and infer zone of the maximum thickness being located along the axis of the Southern Alps, just east from the Alpine fault. The crustal root widens from north to south in the direction perpendicular to the Alpine fault and appears to have an asymmetric structure. Stations in the alpine portion of island show evidence for prominent midcrustal conversions. Significant crustal thickening is developed in response to both the convergent component of the motion on the Alpine fault and subduction in the Fiordland region. We propose two models for a strong uppermost mantle conversion that occurs at depths between 33 and 83 km on 16 stations and forms a large continuous feature along the east coast and in the central portions of the South Island. Our preferred model attributes upper mantle conversion to tectonically underplated oceanic crust formed by late Oligocene-Miocene spreading between the Australian and Pacific plates, which was detached from the Australian plate and tectonically underplated under the South Island. An alternative model attributes the upper mantle conversions to long-lived seismic fabric created by subduction of the Gondwanaland margin

    Studies of the nature of interfacial barriers in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

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    The effects of interfacial barriers in crystalline silicon solar cells were studied. The effort was directed toward the investigation and use of such techniques as Angular Resolved Parameter Spectroscopy (ARAPS) and Impedance Spectroscopy in initially characterizing n-type Si doped to levels commonly used for n+p solar cells, and eventually Si solar cells. The objectives of the research are given. Those accomplished are detailed, as are recommendations for future work

    Variable Speed of Light Cosmology and Bimetric Gravity: An Alternative to Standard Inflation

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    A scalar-tensor bimetric gravity model of early universe cosmology is reviewed. The metric frame with a variable speed of light (VSL) and a constant speed of gravitational waves is used to describe a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. The Friedmann equations are solved for a radiation dominated equation of state and the power spectrum is predicted to be scale invariant with a scalar mode spectral index ns=0.97n_s=0.97. The scalar modes are born in a ground state superhorizon and the fluctuation modes are causally connected by the VSL mechanism. The cosmological constant is equated to zero and there is no significant dependence on the scalar field potential energy. A possible way of distinguishing the metric gravity model from standard inflationary models is discussed.Comment: 10 pages. Latex file. No figures. Talk given at the Coral Gables Conference on High Energy Physics and Cosmology, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, December 17-21, 2003. Typos corrected. Reference adde

    P wave velocity variations in the Coso Region, California, derived from local earthquake travel times

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    Inversion of 4036 P wave travel time residuals from 429 local earthquakes using a tomographic scheme provides information about three-dimensional upper crustal velocity variations in the Indian Wells Valley-Coso region of southeastern California. The residuals are calculated relative to a Coso-specific velocity model, corrected for station elevation, weighted, and back-projected along their ray paths through models defined with layers of blocks. Slowness variations in the surface layer reflect local geology, including slow velocities for the sedimentary basins of Indian Wells and Rose valleys and relatively fast velocities for the Sierra Nevada and Argus Mountains. In the depth range of 3–5 km the inversion images an area of reduced compressional velocity in western and northern Indian Wells Valley but finds no major velocity variations beneath the Coso volcanic field to the north. These results are consistent with a recent study of anomalous shear wave attenuation in the Coso region. Between 5 and 10 km depth, low-velocity areas (7% slow) appear at the southern end of the Coso volcanics, reaching east to the Coso Basin. Numerical tests of the inversion's resolution and sensitivity to noise indicate that these major anomalies are significant and well-resolved, while other apparent velocity variations in poorly sampled areas are probably artifacts. The seismic data alone are not sufficient to uniquely characterize the physical state of these low-velocity regions. Because of the Coso region's history of Pleistocene bimodal volcanism, high heat flow, geothermal activity, geodetic deformation, and seismic activity, one possibility is to link the zones of decreased P velocity to contemporary magmatic activity

    History of Cumberland County Maine

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    A Restoration Method for Impulsive Functions

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    A method is presented for enhancing the resolution of impulsive functions which have been degraded by a known convolutional disturbance and by the addition of white noise. An autoregressive model is employed to represent the spectrum of the ideally resolved impulsive function. The method is flexible in that it allows constraints to be incorporated into the resolution scheme. Two quite diverse examples are presented as illustration