2 research outputs found

    A proof-of-concept study on the genomic evolution of Sars-Cov-2 in molnupiravir-treated, paxlovid-treated and drug-naïve patients

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    Little is known about SARS-CoV-2 evolution under Molnupiravir and Paxlovid, the only antivirals approved for COVID-19 treatment. By investigating SARS-CoV-2 variability in 8 Molnupiravir-treated, 7 Paxlovid-treated and 5 drug-naive individuals at 4 time-points (Days 0-2-5-7), a higher genetic distance is found under Molnupiravir pressure compared to Paxlovid and no-drug pressure (nucleotide-substitutions/site mean & PLUSMN;Standard error: 18.7 x 10(-4) & PLUSMN; 2.1 x 10(-4) vs. 3.3 x 10(-4) & PLUSMN; 0.8 x 10(-4) vs. 3.1 x 10(-4) & PLUSMN; 0.8 x 10(-4), P = 0.0003), peaking between Day 2 and 5. Molnupiravir drives the emergence of more G-A and C-T transitions than other mutations (P = 0.031). SARS-CoV-2 selective evolution under Molnupiravir pressure does not differ from that under Paxlovid or no-drug pressure, except for orf8 (dN > dS, P = 0.001); few amino acid mutations are enriched at specific sites. No RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) or main proteases (Mpro) mutations conferring resistance to Molnupiravir or Paxlovid are found. This proof-of-concept study defines the SARS-CoV-2 within-host evolution during antiviral treatment, confirming higher in vivo variability induced by Molnupiravir compared to Paxlovid and drug-naive, albeit not resulting in apparent mutation selection

    Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Features of Male Breast Cancer: A Multicenter Study

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    Male breast cancer (BC) represents less than 1% of male tumors. Little is known about male BC characteristics, management, and survival, with many studies based on a small number of cases. Consequently, the treatment of male BC lacks specific guidelines. The aims of the study are to compare male and female breast cancer (FBC) in terms of cancer clinical and anatomopathological features and treatment approach, and to identify differences between male BC and FBC in terms of survival. Patients and methods: Data from 2006 to 2018 were retrospectively acquired. Amounts of 49 males and 680 postmenopausal females with primary non-metastatic BC who underwent breast surgery at Mauriziano Hospital or IRCCS Candiolo (TO—Italy) were included. The mean age at diagnosis for male BC was 68.6 years, and males presented a smaller tumor size than women (p p = 0.04). Comparing FBC and male BC, no differences have been identified in terms of DFS and OS, with a similar 10-year-relapse rate (12% male BC vs. 12.4% FBC). Propensity Score Matching by age, nodal status, pT, and molecular subtype had been performed and no differences in OS and DFS were seen between male BC and FBC. In conclusion, male BC and FBC have similar prognostic factors and survival outcomes. The drop-out rate of AET was higher in males, and side effects were the main reason for drug discontinuation
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