161 research outputs found

    Robustness of multiple testing procedures against dependence

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    An important aspect of multiple hypothesis testing is controlling the significance level, or the level of Type I error. When the test statistics are not independent it can be particularly challenging to deal with this problem, without resorting to very conservative procedures. In this paper we show that, in the context of contemporary multiple testing problems, where the number of tests is often very large, the difficulties caused by dependence are less serious than in classical cases. This is particularly true when the null distributions of test statistics are relatively light-tailed, for example, when they can be based on Normal or Student's tt approximations. There, if the test statistics can fairly be viewed as being generated by a linear process, an analysis founded on the incorrect assumption of independence is asymptotically correct as the number of hypotheses diverges. In particular, the point process representing the null distribution of the indices at which statistically significant test results occur is approximately Poisson, just as in the case of independence. The Poisson process also has the same mean as in the independence case, and of course exhibits no clustering of false discoveries. However, this result can fail if the null distributions are particularly heavy-tailed. There clusters of statistically significant results can occur, even when the null hypothesis is correct. We give an intuitive explanation for these disparate properties in light- and heavy-tailed cases, and provide rigorous theory underpinning the intuition.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/07-AOS557 the Annals of Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aos/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Undelivered risk: A counter-factual analysis of the biosecurity risk avoided by inspecting international mail articles

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    International mail articles present an important potential vector for biosecurity and other regulatory risk. Border intervention is a key element in Australia’s biosecurity strategy. Arriving international mail articles are inspected and those that are intercepted with biosecurity risk material are documented, including the address to which the article was to be delivered. Knowledge about patterns in the intended destinations of mail article permits more detailed biosecurity intervention. We used geo-location software to identify the delivery address of mail articles intercepted with biosecurity risk material from 2008–2011. We matched these addresses with demographic data that were recorded at a regional level from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Census and used random forest statistical analyses to correlate various demographic fields at the regional level with the counts of seized mail articles. The analysis of the seizure counts against demographic characteristics suggests a high correlation between having higher numbers of university students that speak a particular language in a region and higher quantities of intercepted mail articles destined for that region. We also explore metropolitan and regional patterns in the destinations of seized materials. These results can be used to provide information on policy and operational actions to try to reduce the rate at which mail articles that contain biosecurity risk material are sent to Australia

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and inhibition in dogs with cardiac disease and an angiotensin-converting enzyme polymorphism

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    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in dogs and with and without an ACE polymorphism in the canine ACE gene, before and after treatment with an ACE inhibitor. METHODS Thirty-one dogs (20 wild-type, 11 ACE polymorphism) with heart disease were evaluated with ACE activity measurement and systolic blood pressure before and after administration of an ACE inhibitor (enalapril). RESULTS Median pre-treatment ACE activity was significantly lower for ACE polymorphism dogs than for dogs with the wild-type sequence ( P=0.007). After two weeks of an ACE inhibitor, ACE activity was significantly reduced for both genotypes (wild-type, P<0.0001; ACE polymorphism P=0.03); mean post-therapy ACE activity was no different between the groups. CONCLUSION An ACE polymorphism is associated with lower levels of ACE activity. Dogs with the polymorphism still experience suppression of ACE activity in response to an ACE inhibitor. It is possible that the genetic status and ACE activity of dogs may impact the response of dogs with this variant to an ACE inhibitor

    Assessing the impact of nitrogen supplementation in oats across multiple growth locations and years with targeted phenotyping and high-resolution metabolite profiling approaches

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    Oats (Avena sativa L.) are a healthy food, being high in dietary fibre (e.g. β-glucans), antioxidants, minerals, and vitamins. Understanding the effect of variety and crop management on nutritional quality is important. The response of four oat varieties to increased nitrogen levels was investigated across multiple locations and years with respect to yield, grain quality and metabolites (assessed via GC- and LC- MS). A novel high-resolution UHPLC-PDA-MS/MS method was developed, providing improved metabolite enrichment, resolution, and identification. The combined phenotyping approach revealed that, amino acid levels were increased by nitrogen supplementation, as were total protein and nitrogen containing lipid levels, whereas health-beneficial avenanthramides were decreased. Although nitrogen addition significantly increased grain yield and β-glucan content, supporting increasing the total nitrogen levels recommended within agricultural guidelines, oat varietal choice as well as negative impacts upon health beneficial secondary metabolites and the environmental burdens associated with nitrogen fertilisation, require further consideration

    Expressions 1979

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    Expressions contains selected work from the 1979 Creative Writing Contest winners and honorable mentions along with Commercial Art students at Des Moines Area Community College. Design, typography and layout was done by Journalism students.https://openspace.dmacc.edu/expressions/1001/thumbnail.jp

    Whole-body MRI compared with standard pathways for staging metastatic disease in lung and colorectal cancer: the Streamline diagnostic accuracy studies.

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    BACKGROUND: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging is advocated as an alternative to standard pathways for staging cancer. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to compare diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, patient acceptability, observer variability and cost-effectiveness of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and standard pathways in staging newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer (Streamline L) and colorectal cancer (Streamline C). DESIGN: The design was a prospective multicentre cohort study. SETTING: The setting was 16 NHS hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients aged ≥ 18 years with histologically proven or suspected colorectal (Streamline C) or non-small-cell lung cancer (Streamline L). INTERVENTIONS: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Standard staging investigations (e.g. computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography). REFERENCE STANDARD: Consensus panel decision using 12-month follow-up data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was per-patient sensitivity difference between whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and standard staging pathways for metastasis. Secondary outcomes included differences in specificity, the nature of the first major treatment decision, time and number of tests to complete staging, patient experience and cost-effectiveness. RESULTS: Streamline C - 299 participants were included. Per-patient sensitivity for metastatic disease was 67% (95% confidence interval 56% to 78%) and 63% (95% confidence interval 51% to 74%) for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and standard pathways, respectively, a difference in sensitivity of 4% (95% confidence interval -5% to 13%; p = 0.51). Specificity was 95% (95% confidence interval 92% to 97%) and 93% (95% confidence interval 90% to 96%) respectively, a difference of 2% (95% confidence interval -2% to 6%). Pathway treatment decisions agreed with the multidisciplinary team treatment decision in 96% and 95% of cases, respectively, a difference of 1% (95% confidence interval -2% to 4%). Time for staging was 8 days (95% confidence interval 6 to 9 days) and 13 days (95% confidence interval 11 to 15 days) for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and standard pathways, respectively, a difference of 5 days (95% confidence interval 3 to 7 days). The whole-body magnetic resonance imaging pathway was cheaper than the standard staging pathway: £216 (95% confidence interval £211 to £221) versus £285 (95% confidence interval £260 to £310). Streamline L - 187 participants were included. Per-patient sensitivity for metastatic disease was 50% (95% confidence interval 37% to 63%) and 54% (95% confidence interval 41% to 67%) for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and standard pathways, respectively, a difference in sensitivity of 4% (95% confidence interval -7% to 15%; p = 0.73). Specificity was 93% (95% confidence interval 88% to 96%) and 95% (95% confidence interval 91% to 98%), respectively, a difference of 2% (95% confidence interval -2% to 7%). Pathway treatment decisions agreed with the multidisciplinary team treatment decision in 98% and 99% of cases, respectively, a difference of 1% (95% confidence interval -2% to 4%). Time for staging was 13 days (95% confidence interval 12 to 14 days) and 19 days (95% confidence interval 17 to 21 days) for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and standard pathways, respectively, a difference of 6 days (95% confidence interval 4 to 8 days). The whole-body magnetic resonance imaging pathway was cheaper than the standard staging pathway: £317 (95% confidence interval £273 to £361) versus £620 (95% confidence interval £574 to £666). Participants generally found whole-body magnetic resonance imaging more burdensome than standard imaging but most participants preferred the whole-body magnetic resonance imaging staging pathway if it reduced time to staging and/or number of tests. LIMITATIONS: Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging was interpreted by practitioners blinded to other clinical data, which may not fully reflect how it is used in clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: In colorectal and non-small-cell lung cancer, the whole-body magnetic resonance imaging staging pathway has similar accuracy to standard staging pathways, is generally preferred by patients, improves staging efficiency and has lower staging costs. Future work should address the utility of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for treatment response assessment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN43958015 and ISRCTN50436483. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 23, No. 66. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information

    Concert recording 2016-11-15

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    [Track 1]. Subjugation. Connection [Track 2]. Captivation / Durgan Maxey -- [Track 3]. Fight / Bryce Owens -- [Track 4]. Overture to Stay / Joshua Bland -- [Track 5]. A cellist\u27s legacy. Part I [Track 6]. Part II / Eric Dreggors -- [Track 7]. Evening prayer / Robbie Baker -- [Track 8]. Elegy / Brandon Wade -- [Track 9]. The grotesques trio. Gargoyles [Track 10]. Chimera [Track 11]. Grotesques / Marissa Johnson -- [Track 12]. Crosshair / Joshua Bland -- [Track 13]. Nightwind sings / L. Coley Pitchford -- [Track 14]. Six reflections through poetry. Memories (Walt Whitman) [Track 15]. The musician\u27s wife (Weldon Kees) [Track 16]. The road not taken (Robert Frost) [Track 17]. Lessons (Whitman) [Track 18]. Stronger lessons (Whitman) [Track 19]. O me! O life! (Whitman) / Nick Vecchio -- [Tracks 20-21]. String quartet #1 / Jeremiah Flannery -- [Track 22]. Tides. Morning tide [Track 23]. Bore tide / Elizabeth Greener -- [Track 24]. Shepherd\u27s contemplation / Robbie Baker -- Green grass / arranged by Eva Martin -- [Track 25]. Urbe fracta est II. A prayer for Jerusalem / Joshua Bland

    A programme theory for liaison mental health services in England

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    Background: Mechanisms by which liaison mental health services (LMHS) may bring about improved patient and organisational outcomes are poorly understood. A small number of logic models have been developed, but they fail to capture the complexity of clinical practice. Method: We synthesised data from a variety of sources including a large national survey, 73 in-depth interviews with acute and liaison staff working in hospitals with different types of liaison mental health services, and relevant local, national and international literature. We generated logic models for two common performance indicators used to assess organisational outcomes for LMHS: response times in the emergency department and hospital length of stay for people with mental health problems. Results: We identified 8 areas of complexity that influence performance, and 6 trade-offs which drove the models in different directions depending upon the balance of the trade-off. The logic models we developed could only be captured by consideration of more than one pass through the system, the complexity in which they operated, and the trade-offs that occurred. Conclusions: Our findings are important for commissioners of liaison services. Reliance on simple target setting may result in services that are unbalanced and not patient-centred. Targets need to be reviewed on a regular basis, together with other data that reflect the wider impact of the service, and any external changes in the system that affect the performance of LMHS, which are beyond their control

    Crop Updates - 2003 Weeds

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    This session covers Thirty four papers from different authors INTRODUCTION INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT IWM system studies/demonstration sites Six years of IWM investigation – what does it tell us? Bill Roy, Agricultural Consulting and Research Services Pty Ltd Long term herbicide resistance site, the final chapter, Peter Newman and Glen Adam, Department of Agriculture Management of skeleton weed (chondrilla juncea) in a cropping rotation in Western Australia, J. R. Peirce and B. J. Rayner, Department of Agriculture WEED BIOLOGY AND COMPETITION Annual ryegrass seedbanks: The good, the bad and the ugly, Kathryn J. Steadman1, Amanda J. Ellery2 and Sally C. Peltzer3 , 1WA Herbicide Resistance Initiative, UWA, 2CSIRO Plant Industry, 3 Department of Agriculture Annual ryegrass seeds after-ripen faster during a hot summer, Kathryn J. Steadman1, Gavin P. Bignell1 and Amanda J. Ellery2, 1WA Herbicide Resistance Initiative, UWA, 2CSIRO Plant Industry Predicting annual ryegrass dormancy from climatic variables, Amanda Ellery, Andrew Moore, Sandy Nedelkos, Ross Chapman, CSIRO Plant Industry Removing dormancy in annual ryegrass seeds for early herbicide resistance testing, Kathryn J. Steadman and Mechelle J. Owen, WA Herbicide Resistance Initiative, UWA Annual ryegrass germination responds to nitrogen, Amanda Ellery1, Simone Dudley1 and Robert Gallagher2, 1CSIRO Plant Industry, 2Washington State University The agro-ecology of Malva parviflora (small flowered mallow), Pippa J. Michael, Kathryn J. Steadman and Julie A. Plummer, Western Australia Herbicide Resistance Initiative, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia The looming threat of wild radish, Peter Newman, Department of Agriculture IWM TOOLS Double knock, how close can we go? Peter Newman and Glen Adam, Department of Agriculture Double knock herbicide effect on annual ryegrass, Catherine Borger, Abul Hashem and Nerys Wilkins, Department of Agriculture Tactical techniques for managing Annual Ryegrass, Sally Peltzer1, Alex Douglas1, Fran Hoyle1, Paul Matson1 and Michael Walsh2 Department of Agriculture and 2Western Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative. Weed control through soil inversion, Sally Peltzer, Alex Douglas and Paul Matson, Department of Agriculture The burning issues of annual ryegrass seed control, Darren Chitty and Michael Walsh, Western Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative, UWA No sign of chaff-cart resistant ryegrass! David Ferris, WA Herbicide Resistance Initiative UWA PACKAGES AND MODELLING Conserving glyphosate susceptibility – modelling past, present and future us. Paul Neve1, Art Diggle2, Patrick Smith3 and Stephen Powles1 ,1Western Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative, School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, 2Department of Agriculture, 3CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems WEEDEM: A program for predicting weed emergence in Western Australia, Michael Walsh,1 David Archer2, James Eklund2 and Frank Forcella2, 1Western Australia Herbicide Resistance Initiative, UWA, 2USDA-Agricultural Research Service, 803 Iowa Avenue, Morris, MN 56267, USA Weed and herbicide management for long term profit: A workshop, Alister Draper1 and Rick Llewellyn12, 1WA Herbicide Resistance Initiative, 2School of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia HERBICIDE RESISTANCE Alternative herbicides for control of triazine and diflufenican multiple resistant wild radish, Aik Cheam1, Siew Lee1, David Nicholson1 and Mike Clarke2 1Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, 2Bayer CropScience Resistance of wild mustard biotype to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in WA Wheatbelt, Abul Hashem, Department of Agriculture Glyphosate-resistant ryegrass biotypes in the WA wheatbelt, Abul Hashem, Catherine Borger and Nerys Wilkins, Department of Agriculture Implications of herbicide rates for resistance management, Paul Neve, Western Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative, University of Western Australia Putting a price on herbicide resistance, Rick Llewellyn, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics/WA Herbicide Resistance Initiative, University of Western Australia Herbicide resistance from over the fence: Mobility and management, Debbie Allena, Rick Llewellynb, aUniversity of Western Australia, 4th year student, 2002. Mingenew-Irwin Group, bSchool of Agricultural and Resource Economics/Western Australia Herbicide Resistance Initiative, University of Western Australia HERBICIDE TOLERANCE Herbicide tolerance of new barley varieties, Harmohinder S. Dhammu and Terry Piper, Department of Agriculture Herbicide tolerance of new lupins, Harmohinder S. Dhammu, Terry Piper and David Nicholson, Department of Agriculture Herbicide tolerance of new field pea varieties, Harmohinder S. Dhammu, Terry Piper and David Nicholson, Department of Agriculture Herbicide tolerance of new lentil varieties, H.S. Dhammu, T.J. Piper and L.E. Young, Department of Agriculture HERBICIDES – NEW PRODUCTS/PRODUCT USES; USE Kill half leaf ryegrass with Spray.Seed® at night, Peter Newman and Glenn Adam, Department of Agriculture CLEARFIELD™ wheat to control hard-to-kill weeds, Abul Hashem, Catherine Borger and Nerys Wilkins, Department of Agriculture Diuron, a possible alternative to simazine pre-emergent in lupins, Peter Newman and Glenn Adam, Department of Agriculture Dual Gold® soft on barley, soft on weeds in dry conditions, Peter Newman and Glenn Adam, Department of Agriculture Dual Gold® soft on lupins, soft on ryegrass in dry conditions, Peter Newman and Glenn Adam, Department of Agricultur
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