56,667 research outputs found

    A co-operating solver approach to building simulation

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    This paper describes the co-operating solver approach to building simulation as encapsulated within the ESP-r system. Possible adaptations are then considered to accommodate new functional requirements

    Predicting adaptive responses - simulating occupied environments

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    Simulation of building performance is increasingly being used in design practice to predict comfort of occupants in finished buildings. This is an area of great uncertainty: what actions does a person take when too warm or suffering from glare; how is comfort measured; how do groups of people interact to control environmental conditions, etc? An increasing attention to model these issues is evident in current research. Two issues are covered in this paper: how comfort can be assessed and what actions occupants are likely to make to achieve and maintain a comfortable status. The former issue describes the implementation of existing codes within a computational framework. This is non-trivial as information on local air velocities, radiant temperature and air temperature and relative humidity have to be predicted as they evolve over time in response to changing environmental conditions. This paper also presents a nascent algorithm for modelling occupant behaviour with respect to operable windows. The algorithm is based on results of several field studies which show the influence of internal and external temperatures on decision making in this respect. The derivation and implementation of the algorithm is discussed, highlighting areas where further effort could be of benefit

    Interactive tag maps and tag clouds for the multiscale exploration of large spatio-temporal datasets

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    'Tag clouds' and 'tag maps' are introduced to represent geographically referenced text. In combination, these aspatial and spatial views are used to explore a large structured spatio-temporal data set by providing overviews and filtering by text and geography. Prototypes are implemented using freely available technologies including Google Earth and Yahoo! 's Tag Map applet. The interactive tag map and tag cloud techniques and the rapid prototyping method used are informally evaluated through successes and limitations encountered. Preliminary evaluation suggests that the techniques may be useful for generating insights when visualizing large data sets containing geo-referenced text strings. The rapid prototyping approach enabled the technique to be developed and evaluated, leading to geovisualization through which a number of ideas were generated. Limitations of this approach are reflected upon. Tag placement, generalisation and prominence at different scales are issues which have come to light in this study that warrant further work

    Interactive visual exploration of a large spatio-temporal dataset: Reflections on a geovisualization mashup

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    Exploratory visual analysis is useful for the preliminary investigation of large structured, multifaceted spatio-temporal datasets. This process requires the selection and aggregation of records by time, space and attribute, the ability to transform data and the flexibility to apply appropriate visual encodings and interactions. We propose an approach inspired by geographical 'mashups' in which freely-available functionality and data are loosely but flexibly combined using de facto exchange standards. Our case study combines MySQL, PHP and the LandSerf GIS to allow Google Earth to be used for visual synthesis and interaction with encodings described in KML. This approach is applied to the exploration of a log of 1.42 million requests made of a mobile directory service. Novel combinations of interaction and visual encoding are developed including spatial 'tag clouds', 'tag maps', 'data dials' and multi-scale density surfaces. Four aspects of the approach are informally evaluated: the visual encodings employed, their success in the visual exploration of the clataset, the specific tools used and the 'rnashup' approach. Preliminary findings will be beneficial to others considering using mashups for visualization. The specific techniques developed may be more widely applied to offer insights into the structure of multifarious spatio-temporal data of the type explored here

    Development and demonstration of a renewable energy based demand/supply decision support tool for the building design profession

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    Future cities are likely to be characterised by a greater level of renewable energy systems deployment. Maximum impact will be achieved when such systems are used to offset local energy demands in contrast to current philosophy dictating the grid connection of large schemes. This paper reports on the development of a software tool, MERIT, for demand/ supply matching. The purpose of MERIT is to assist with the deployment of renewable energy systems at all scales. This paper describes the procedures used to match heterogeneous supply technologies to a set of demand profiles corresponding to the different possible fuel types

    Development of a simulation-based decision support tool for renewable energy integration and demand-supply matching

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    This paper describes a simulation-based decision support tool, MERIT, which has been developed to assist in the assessment of renewable energy systems by focusing on the degree of match achievable between energy demand and supply. Models are described for the prediction of the performance of PV, wind and battery technologies. These models are based on manufacturers' specifications, location-related parameters and hourly weather data. The means of appraising the quality of match is outlined and examples are given of the application of the tool at the individual building and community levels

    Accretion Disc Evolution in Single and Binary T Tauri Stars

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    We present theoretical models for the evolution of T Tauri stars surrounded by circumstellar discs. The models include the effects of pre-main-sequence stellar and time dependent disc evolution, and incorporate the effects of stellar magnetic fields acting on the inner disc. For single stars, consistency with observations in Taurus-Auriga demands that disc dispersal occurs rapidly, on much less than the viscous timescale of the disc, at roughly the epoch when heating by stellar radiation first dominates over internal viscous dissipation. Applying the models to close binaries, we find that because the initial conditions for discs in binaries are uncertain, studies of extreme mass ratio systems are required to provide a stringent test of theoretical disc evolution models. We also note that no correlation of the infra-red colours of T Tauri stars with their rotation rate is observed, in apparent contradiction to the predictions of simple magnetospheric accretion models.Comment: 11 pages, MNRAS in pres

    Titanium alloy stress corrosion cracking in presence of dinitrogen tetroxide

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    Study resulting in a satisfactory stress corrosion cracking test with extremely consistent results produced six new analytical methods. Methods detect and determine differences in the minor constituent composition of different types of dinitrogen tetroxide
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