8,459 research outputs found

    Neural correlates of emotion word processing: the interaction between emotional valence and arousal

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    Emotion is characterised by two-dimensions: emotional valence describes the extent to which an emotion is positive or negative, and arousal represents its intensity. Emotional content of verbal material affects cognitive processing, although research on word recognition has only recently taken emotion into account, primarily focusing on valence, while neglecting arousal. The present work aimed to disentangle the effects of valence and arousal during a lexical decision task, using reaction times (RTs), event-related potentials (ERPs) and BOLD responses in an event-related fMRI design. These methods were chosen to determine when affective features have an effect, and which neural systems are involved. The material for three experiments was based on a word corpus created by collecting ratings for emotional and lexico-semantic features. A first and novel finding was that arousal interacted with valence. Specifically, lexical decision times were slower for high-arousal positive stimuli (PH) and low-arousal negative ones (NL) compared to low-arousal positive (PL) and high arousal negative (NH) stimuli. ERPs also showed an interaction between 200-300 ms on the early posterior negativity (EPN), a component which is sensitive to emotional stimuli. At this processing stage people access their mental lexicon. Its amplitude was greater for PH and NL words, suggesting a higher processing load for conflicting stimuli. Positive valence and low arousal elicit an approach schema, whereas negative valence and high arousal elicit an avoidance schema (Robinson, Storbeck, Meier & Kirkeby, 2004). BOLD responses showed a similar interaction in the insula bilaterally, with increased activation for PH and NL words. This region is associated with integration of information on visceral states with higher-order cognitive and emotional processing, suggesting higher difficulty in integrating conflicting stimuli. Taken together, these studies indicate that emotion affects word processing during lexical access, and models of word recognition need to take into account both valence and arousal

    Conrad Tockler’s Research Agenda

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    Social context modulates the effect of physical warmth on perceived interpersonal kindness:a study of embodied metaphors

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    Physical contact with hot vs. iced coffee has been shown to affect evaluation of the personal warmth or kindness of a hypothetical person (Williams & Bargh, 2008). In 3 studies, we investigated whether the manipulation of social context can modulate the activation of the metaphorical mapping, KINDNESS as WARMTH. After priming participants with warm vs. cold temperature, we asked them to evaluate a hypothetical ad-hoc ally or adversary on the kindness dimension, as well as on other qualities used as a control. We expected more extreme evaluations of kindness in the adversary than in the ally condition, and no effects on other ratings. We thus replicated the classical effect of physical warmth on kindness ratings and generalized it to a German-speaking population. In addition, when the two German studies were combined, we found evidence suggesting a contextual modulation of the temperature effect: only out-group members, namely adversaries, were judged as more kind when participants had experienced physical warmth; the effect was not evident in the ally (i.e., in-group) condition. These studies suggest that context can modulate metaphorical activation; they therefore represent an initial attempt to add nuance to our understanding of when embodied metaphors affect our decisions

    Effects of Task, Emotional Valence, and Emotional Arousal

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    The affective dimensions of emotional valence and emotional arousal affect processing of verbal and pictorial stimuli. Traditional emotional theories assume a linear relationship between these dimensions, with valence determining the direction of a behavior (approach vs. withdrawal) and arousal its intensity or strength. In contrast, according to the valence-arousal conflict theory, both dimensions are interactively related: positive valence and low arousal (PL) are associated with an implicit tendency to approach a stimulus, whereas negative valence and high arousal (NH) are associated with withdrawal. Hence, positive, high-arousal (PH) and negative, low-arousal (NL) stimuli elicit conflicting action tendencies. By extending previous research that used several tasks and methods, the present study investigated whether and how emotional valence and arousal affect subjective approach vs. withdrawal tendencies toward emotional words during two novel tasks. In Study 1, participants had to decide whether they would approach or withdraw from concepts expressed by written words. In Studies 2 and 3 participants had to respond to each word by pressing one of two keys labeled with an arrow pointing upward or downward. Across experiments, positive and negative words, high or low in arousal, were presented. In Study 1 (explicit task), in line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, PH and NL words were responded to more slowly than PL and NH words. In addition, participants decided to approach positive words more often than negative words. In Studies 2 and 3, participants responded faster to positive than negative words, irrespective of their level of arousal. Furthermore, positive words were significantly more often associated with “up” responses than negative words, thus supporting the existence of implicit associations between stimulus valence and response coding (positive is up and negative is down). Hence, in contexts in which participants' spontaneous responses are based on implicit associations between stimulus valence and response, there is no influence of arousal. In line with the valence-arousal conflict theory, arousal seems to affect participants' approach-withdrawal tendencies only when such tendencies are made explicit by the task, and a minimal degree of processing depth is required

    Collider Interplay for Supersymmetry, Higgs and Dark Matter

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    We discuss the potential impacts on the CMSSM of future LHC runs and possible electron-positron and higher-energy proton-proton colliders, considering searches for supersymmetry via MET events, precision electroweak physics, Higgs measurements and dark matter searches. We validate and present estimates of the physics reach for exclusion or discovery of supersymmetry via MET searches at the LHC, which should cover the low-mass regions of the CMSSM parameter space favoured in a recent global analysis. As we illustrate with a low-mass benchmark point, a discovery would make possible accurate LHC measurements of sparticle masses using the MT2 variable, which could be combined with cross-section and other measurements to constrain the gluino, squark and stop masses and hence the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters m_0, m_{1/2} and A_0 of the CMSSM. Slepton measurements at CLIC would enable m_0 and m_{1/2} to be determined with high precision. If supersymmetry is indeed discovered in the low-mass region, precision electroweak and Higgs measurements with a future circular electron-positron collider (FCC-ee, also known as TLEP) combined with LHC measurements would provide tests of the CMSSM at the loop level. If supersymmetry is not discovered at the LHC, is likely to lie somewhere along a focus-point, stop coannihilation strip or direct-channel A/H resonance funnel. We discuss the prospects for discovering supersymmetry along these strips at a future circular proton-proton collider such as FCC-hh. Illustrative benchmark points on these strips indicate that also in this case FCC-ee could provide tests of the CMSSM at the loop level.Comment: 47 pages, 26 figure

    Effects of valence and arousal on written word recognition:Time course and ERP correlates

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    Models of affect assume a two-dimensional framework, composed of emotional valence and arousal. Although neuroimaging evidence supports a neuro-functional distinction of their effects during single word processing, electrophysiological studies have not yet compared the effects of arousal within the same category of valence (positive and negative). Here we investigate effects of arousal and valence on written lexical decision. Amplitude differences between emotion and neutral words were seen in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive complex and in a sustained slow positivity. In addition, trends towards interactive effects of valence and arousal were observed in the EPN, showing larger amplitude for positive, high-arousal and negative, low-arousal words. The results provide initial evidence for interactions between arousal and valence during processing of positive words and highlight the importance of both variables in studies of emotional stimulus processing. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved

    How are affective word ratings related to lexicosemantic properties?:evidence from the Sussex Affective Word List

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    Emotional content of verbal material affects the speed of visual word recognition in various cognitive tasks, independently of lexicosemantic variables. However, little is known about how the dimensions of emotional arousal and valence interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words such as age of acquisition, familiarity, and imageability, that determine word recognition performance. This study aimed to examine these relationships using English ratings for affective and lexicosemantic features. Eighty-two native English speakers rated 300 words for emotional valence, arousal, familiarity, age of acquisition, and imageability. Although both dimensions of emotion were correlated with lexicosemantic variables, a unique emotion cluster produced the strongest quadratic relationship. This finding suggests that emotion should be included in models of word recognition as it is likely to make an independent contribution

    Pengaruh Penerapan Model Pembelajaran POE(Predict Observe Explain) terhadap Hasil Belajar Siswa Materi Getaran dan Gelombang

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh model pembelajaran POE terhadap hasil belajar siswa pada materi getaran dan gelombang. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII dengan jumlah 36 orang. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan instrument tes, dan jenis analisis yang digunakan menggunakan rumus uji t-tes. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, diperoleh perhitungan dan analisis data menggunakan uji t dengan nilai thitung 16,81 > ttabel 2,042 yang menggambarkan bahwa H0 ditolak dan Hi diterima. Pengaruh penerapan model pembelajaran POE dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar siswa pada materi getaran dan gelombang dengan nilai N-gain sebesar 0,65 kategori sedang. Nilai rata-rata posttest yang diperoleh sebesar 81,02 lebih tinggi dari nilai KKM yang ditentukan (75). Berdasarkan uji statistik, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh peningkatan hasil belajar siswa dari penggunaan model POE pada materi getaran dan gelombang
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