2,121 research outputs found

    Response of microchannel plates in ionization mode to single particles and electromagnetic showers

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    Hundreds of concurrent collisions per bunch crossing are expected at future hadron colliders. Precision timing calorimetry has been advocated as a way to mitigate the pileup effects and, thanks to their excellent time resolution, microchannel plates (MCPs) are good candidate detectors for this goal. We report on the response of MCPs, used as secondary emission detectors, to single relativistic particles and to electromagnetic showers. Several prototypes, with different geometries and characteristics, were exposed to particle beams at the INFN-LNF Beam Test Facility and at CERN. Their time resolution and efficiency are measured for single particles and as a function of the multiplicity of particles. Efficiencies between 50% and 90% to single relativistic particles are reached, and up to 100% in presence of a large number of particles. Time resolutions between 20ps and 30ps are obtained.Comment: 20 pages, 9 figures. Paper submitted to NIM

    Microfluidic devices for quasi-phase-matching in high-order harmonic generation

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    The development of compact and bright XUV and soft X-ray sources based on high-order harmonic generation is boosting advances towards understanding the behavior of matter with extreme temporal and spatial resolutions. Here, we report efficient XUV generation inside microfluidic devices fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation followed by chemical etching. Our microfluidic approach allows one to control and manipulate the generation conditions in gas on a micro-meter scale with unprecedented flexibility, thus enabling a high photon-flux and broadband harmonics spectra up to 200 eV

    The spatial aspects of fairness

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    As well as their family background, an individual's chances in life are determined by the opportunities available to them in their geographical context. This chapter therefore deals with the spatial aspects of fairness. It focuses, firstly, on socio-economic factors which are not randomly distributed in space (i.e. they have a geographical pattern). Secondly, it focuses, not on first nature geographical differences which cannot be changed (such as the presence of mountains), but on second nature geographical factors (such as access to basic services or hospitals) which can be altered and which are important in overcoming a region's natural disadvantages. It then links the two

    Constraints on the χ_(c1) versus χ_(c2) polarizations in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

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    The polarizations of promptly produced χ_(c1) and χ_(c2) mesons are studied using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, in proton-proton collisions at √s=8  TeV. The χ_c states are reconstructed via their radiative decays χ_c → J/ψγ, with the photons being measured through conversions to e⁺e⁻, which allows the two states to be well resolved. The polarizations are measured in the helicity frame, through the analysis of the χ_(c2) to χ_(c1) yield ratio as a function of the polar or azimuthal angle of the positive muon emitted in the J/ψ → μ⁺μ⁻ decay, in three bins of J/ψ transverse momentum. While no differences are seen between the two states in terms of azimuthal decay angle distributions, they are observed to have significantly different polar anisotropies. The measurement favors a scenario where at least one of the two states is strongly polarized along the helicity quantization axis, in agreement with nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics predictions. This is the first measurement of significantly polarized quarkonia produced at high transverse momentum