17 research outputs found

    Comparing early-childhood and school-aged systems of care for children with emotional and behavioral difficulties: risk, symptom presentation, and outcomes

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    OBJECTIVES : Most large-scale evaluations of systems of care (SOCs) have focused on school-aged populations, with limited research examining early childhood SOCs. As a result, little is known about how risk profiles, symptom presentation, and outcomes may vary between early childhood and school-aged SOC participants. This descriptive study uses data from two SOCs—an early childhood SOC (EC-SOC) and a school-aged SOC (SA-SOC)—to examine the differences across age groups in how children and families present to SOCs and the extent to which risk factors and symptoms change over six months of enrollment. METHOD : Participants were 184 children in the EC-SOC (mage = 3.91) and 142 children in the SA-SOC (mage = 9.36). Families completed measures assessing risk factors and functioning at enrollment and at six-month follow up. Descriptive analyses measured the presence of risk factors and symptoms at enrollment and follow-up. Correlations were computed to determine the associations between symptom measures. RESULTS : Results identified areas of similarity and difference between families presenting for SOCs at different developmental stages. Younger children experienced greater behavioral problems (Hedge’s g = 0.52, p< 0.001) with more associated caregiver stress (Hedge’s g range = 0.34–0.62, p < 0.01) and strain (Hedge’s g = 0.34, p= 0.005). Trauma was more strongly associated with child and caregiver symptoms among younger children. Greater change in symptom measures was observed for the EC-SOC. CONCLUSIONS : Findings highlight the importance of providing services in early childhood and provide guidance for SOC service provision at different ages.The preparation of this paper was supported, in part, by the first author’s National Institutes of Health T32-funded postdoctoral training fellowship (T32DA019426-13). The New London Building Blocks project was supported by a grant from the Center for Mental Health Services of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The Rhode Island Positive Educational Partnership project was supported through a cooperative agreement by the Center for Mental Health Services of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration to the State of Rhode Island Department of Children, Youth, and Families.https://link.springer.com/journal/108262020-08-05hj2020Psycholog

    The intergenerational impact of genetic and psychological factors on blood pressure study (InterGEN) : design and methods for recruitment and psychological measures

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    BACKGROUND : Although studies show that genomics and environmental stressors affect blood pressure, few studies have examined their combined effects, especially in African Americans. OBJECTIVE : We present the recruitment methods and psychological measures of the Intergenerational Impact of Genetic and Psychological Factors on Blood Pressure (InterGEN) study, which seeks to investigate the individual and combined effects of genetic (G) and environmental (E) (psychological) stressors on blood pressure in African American mother-child dyads. Genetic methods are presented elsewhere, but here we present the recruitment methods, psychological measures, and analysis plan for these environmental stressors. METHODS : This longitudinal study will enroll 250 mother-child dyads (N = 500). Study participation is restricted to women who (a) are ≤21 years of age, (b) self-identify as African American or Black, (c) speak English, (d) do not have an identified mental illness or cognitive impairment, and (e) have a biological child between 3 and 5 years old. The primary environmental stressors assessed are parenting stress, perceived racism and discrimination, and maternal mental health. Covariates include age, cigarette smoking (for mothers), and gender (for children). The study outcome variables are systolic and diastolic blood pressure. ANALYSIS : The main analytic outcome is genetic-by-environment interaction analyses (G × E); however, main effects (G) and (E) will be individually assessed first. Genetic (G) and interaction analyses (G × E) are described in a companion paper and will include laboratory procedures. Statistical modeling of environmental stressors on blood pressure will be done using descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equation models. IMPLICATIONS : The methodology presented here includes the study rationale, community engagement and recruitment protocol, psychological variable measurement, and analysis plan for assessing the association of environmental stressors and blood pressure. This study may provide the foundation for other studies and development of interventions to reduce the risk for hypertension and to propose targeted health promotion programs for this high-risk population.http://journals.lww.com/nursingresearchonline2017-07-31hb2016Psycholog

    Association of obesity with DNA methylation age acceleration in African American mothers from the InterGEN study

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    African American women are a ected by earlier onset of age-associated health deteriorations and obesity disproportionally, but little is known about the mechanism linking body mass index (BMI) and biological aging among this population. DNA methylation age acceleration (DNAm AA), measuring the di erence betweenDNAmethylation age and chronological age, is a novel biomarker of the biological aging process, and predicts aging-related disease outcomes. The present study estimated cross-tissue DNA methylation age acceleration using saliva samples from 232 African American mothers. Cross-sectional regression analyses were performed to assess the association of BMI with DNAmAA. The average chronological age andDNAmethylation age were 31.67 years, and 28.79 years, respectively. After adjusting for smoking, hypertension diagnosis history, and socioeconomic factors (education, marital status, household income), a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI is associated with 0.14 years increment of DNAm AA (95% CI: (0.08, 0.21)). The conclusion: in African American women, high BMI is independently associated with saliva-based DNA methylation age acceleration, after adjusting for smoking, hypertension, and socioeconomic status. This finding supports that high BMI accelerates biological aging, and plays a key role in age-related disease outcomes among African American women.National Institutes of Health granthttps://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijmspm2020Psycholog

    Experiences of trauma and DNA methylation profiles among African American mothers and children

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    Potentially traumatic experiences have been associated with chronic diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation (DNAm), have been proposed as an explanation for this association. We examined the association of experiences of trauma with epigenome-wide DNAm among African American mothers (n = 236) and their children aged 3–5 years (n = 232; N = 500), using the Life Events Checklist-5 (LEC) and Traumatic Events Screening Inventory—Parent Report Revised (TESI-PRR). We identified no DNAm sites significantly associated with potentially traumatic experience scores in mothers. One CpG site on the ENOX1 gene was methylome-wide-significant in children (FDR-corrected q-value = 0.05) from the TESI-PRR. This protein-coding gene is associated with mental illness, including unipolar depression, bipolar, and schizophrenia. Future research should further examine the associations between childhood trauma, DNAm, and health outcomes among this understudied and high-risk group. Findings from such longitudinal research may inform clinical and translational approaches to prevent adverse health outcomes associated with epigenetic changes.The National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research; a Yale School of Nursing Alumni Donor; the National Institutes of Health Medical Scientist Training Program Grant and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health Policy Research Scholars Program.https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijmsPsycholog