4,732 research outputs found

    The ground state of a spin-1/2 neutral particle with anomalous magnetic moment in a Aharonov-Casher configuration

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    We determine the (bound) ground state of a spin 1/2 chargless particle with anomalous magnetic moment in certain Aharonov-Casher configurations. We recast the description of the system in a supersymmetric form. Then the basic physical requirements for unbroken supersymmetry are established. We comment on the possibility of neutron trapping in these systems

    Unbroken supersymmetry in the Aharonov-Casher effect

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    We consider the problem of the bound states of a spin 1/2 chargless particle in a given Aharonov-Casher configuration. To this end we recast the description of the system in a supersymmetric form. Then the basic physical requirements for unbroken supersymmetry are established. We comment on the possibility of neutron confinement in this system

    A switchable light-responsive azopolymer conjugating protein micropatterns with topography for mechanobiological studies

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    Stem cell shape and mechanical properties in vitro can be directed by geometrically defined micropatterned adhesion substrates. However conventional methods are limited by the fixed micropattern design, which cannot recapitulate the dynamic changes of the natural cell microenvironment. Current methods to fabricate dynamic platforms usually rely on complex chemical strategies or require specialized apparatuses. Also, with these methods the integration of dynamic signals acting on different length scales is not straightforward, whereas in some applications might be beneficial to act on both a microscale level, i.e. cell shape, and on a nanoscale level, i.e. cell adhesions. Here, we exploited a confocal laser-based technique on a light-responsive azopolymer displaying micropatterns of adhesive islands. The laser light promotes a directed mass migration and the formation of submicrometric topographic relieves. Also, by changing the surface chemistry, the surfacing topography affects cell spreading and shape. This method enabled us to monitor in a non-invasive manner the dynamic changes in focal adhesions, cytoskeleton structures and nucleus conformation that followed the changes in the adhesive characteristic of the substrate. Focal adhesions reconfigured after the surfacing of the topography and the actin filaments reoriented to co-align with the newly formed adhesive island. Changes in cell morphology also affected nucleus shape, chromatin conformation and cell mechanics with different timescales. The reported strategy can be used to investigate mechanotransduction-related events dynamically by controlling cell adhesion at a cell shape and focal adhesion levels. The integrated technique enables achieving a submicrometric resolution in a facile and cost-effective manner

    Herbicidal potential of ophiobolins produced by Drechslera gigantea

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    Drechslera gigantea, a potential mycoherbicide of grass weeds, was isolated in Florida from naturally infected large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis); it produces phytotoxic metabolites in liquid culture. The main metabolite was identified by spectroscopic methods and optical properties as ophiobolin A (1), a well-known phytotoxic sesterterpene produced by several phytopathogenic fungi of important crops and already extensively studied for its interesting biological activities. The other three minor metabolites proved to be related to ophiobolin A and were identified using the same techniques as 6-epi-ophiobolin A and 3-anhydro-6-epi-ophiobolin A (2 and 3) and ophiobolin I (4). Assayed on punctured detached leaves of several grass and dicotyledon weeds, ophiobolin A proved to be on average more phytotoxic as compared to the other related compounds. Some structural features appear to be important for the phytoxicity, such as the hydroxy group at C-3, the stereochemistry at C-6, and the aldehyde group at C-7. Furthermore, grass weeds usually proved to be more sensitive to the phytotoxins than dicotyledons, on which ophiobolin A caused the appearance of large necrosis even at the lowest concentration assayed. This is the first report about the production of ophiobolins from D. gigantea and of the proposed use as potential natural herbicides against grass weeds. © 2006 American Chemical Society

    Inuloxin E, a New Seco-Eudesmanolide Isolated from Dittrichia viscosa, Stimulating Orobanche cumana Seed Germination

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    A new sesquiterpenoid belonging to the subgroup seco-eudesmanolides and named inuloxin E was isolated from Dittrichia viscosa, together with the already known sesquiterpenoids inuloxins A–D and -costic acid. Inuloxin E was characterized by spectroscopic data (essentially NMR and ESIMS) as 3-methylene-6-(1-methyl-4-oxo-pentyl)-3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro-3H-benzofuran-2-one. Its relative configuration was determined by comparison with the closely related inuloxin D and chemical conversion of inuloxin E into inuloxin D and by the observed significant correlation in the NOESY spectrum. Both inuloxins D and E induced germination of the parasitic weed Orobanche cumana, but were inactive on the seeds of Orobanche minor and Phelipanche ramosa. The germination activity of some hemisynthetic esters of inuloxin D was also investigated

    Ophiobolin E and 8-epi-ophiobolin J produced by Drechslera gigantea, a potential mycoherbicide of weedy grasses

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    Drechslera gigantea, a fungal pathogen isolated from large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis) and proposed as a potential mycoherbicide of grass weeds, produces phytotoxic metabolites in liquid and solid cultures. Ophiobolin A and three minor ophiobolins i.e., 6-epi-ophiobolin A, 3-anhydro-6-epi-ophiobolin A and ophiobolin I were obtained from the liquid culture broths. Interestingly and unexpectedly, ophiobolins also appeared in cultures of this fungus and they were isolated together with the known ophiobolins B and J, and designed as ophiobolin E and 8-epi-ophiobolin J. They were characterized using essentially spectroscopic methods. It is noteworthy that D. gigantea produces such a plethora of bioactive organic substances. Some structure-activity relationship results are also discussed in this report. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
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