169 research outputs found

    Systematic review with meta-analysis: Safety and efficacy of local injections of mesenchymal stem cells in perianal fistulas

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    Perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease (CD) represent a highly debilitating and difficult-to-treat condition. Given emerging supportive evidence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all trials/observational studies to establish the safety and efficacy of local injections of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The PRISMA-P statement was applied for planning and reporting, and MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov database, and ECCO 2017 proceedings were searched for published observational studies and one-arm and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Safety was assessed in terms of acute local/systemic events, long-term events, and relatedness with MSC treatment. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of external and/or radiological closure of fistula tracks. After a review of 211 citations, 23 studies, including 696 participants, were evaluated. Four were RCTs with a total of 483 patients. Overall, fistula closure occurred in 80% of MSC-treated patients. In RCTs, this rate was 64% in the MSC arm and 37% in the control arm (relative risk (RR)‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.54). Radiological response occurred in 83% of MSC-treated patients. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 1% of MSC-treated patients, with severe treatment-related adverse events reaching 0% over a median follow-up of 6 months. In RCTs, treatment-related adverse events occurred in 13% in the MSC arm and 24% in the control arm (RR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.65). The relapse rate was 0. These results suggest that a local MSC injection is safe and efficacious. Further clinical trials with standardized end-points are required to ensure the timely implementation of this new therapy in the management of perianal CD

    Reduced number and function of peripheral dendritic cells in coeliac disease.

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    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in shaping the immune response in both physiological and pathological conditions. In peripheral blood at least two subsets, the myeloid and plasmacytoid, have been described as having different T stimulatory functions and a variable degree of maturation. Certainly, antigen presentation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of coeliac disease and circulating immune cells are thought to reflect the state of immune response within the gut. Therefore,we aimed to investigate the quantitative and phenotypical modifications of peripheral bloodDC, together with their functional properties, in this pathological condition. Blood samples from 11 untreated patients before and after a course of gluten-free diet, 27 treated patients and 14 controls underwent flow-cytometric analysis, while immunomagnetically sorted DC from the CD patients and eight human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2/8+ bone marrow donors were used to evaluate maturation status through the CD83 expression, cytokine profile for interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-a by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and functional properties by mixed leucocyte reaction before and after pulsing with digested gliadin. We found that in both untreated and treated patients, a significant reduction of the entire DC population, mainly the plasmacytoid subset, in comparison to healthy controls was observed. In active disease, an impaired allogenic lymphocyte reaction and a significant reduction of IFN-a production, paralleled by the presence of a more immature status, were also demonstrated. All the latter modifications have been reverted by pulsing DC with digested gliadin

    Life-Threatening Protein-Losing Enteropathy Due To Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Upon Immunochemotherapy

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    Immunochemotherapy adverse events affecting the gastrointestinal tract usually consist of self-limiting nausea/ vomiting or diarrhoea, while bleeding and perforation are rare. A 42-year-old woman treated with bendamustine/ rituximab for splenic marginal zone lymphoma developed alife-threatening protein-losing enteropathy that was a diagnosis conundrum, ranging from drug-induced, immunemediated, neoplastic and infectious forms. Suspecting opportunistic viral infection but with unremarkable immunohistochemistry and peripheral blood tests, the diagnosis of Human Cytomegalovirus enteritis was made only by means of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction carried out on mucosal specimens. Steroid discontinuation and a prolonged course of antiviral therapy allowed the patient to overcome the critical phase and to achieve gradual normalisation of stool frequency, body mass index, laboratory tests lasting one year, while disappearance of mucosal viral load resulted soon evident. Human Cytom-egalovirus end-organ disease localised at the gastrointestinal tract is a serious condition whose prompt diagnosis and treatment prevents poor patients prognosis

    Changes in Hematologic and Coagulation Profiles in Rabbits with Right-ventricle Pacing.

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    Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in hematology and coagulation in rabbits with right-ventricle pacing without medication. Animals and methods: Blood was collected from ten non-anesthetized male rabbits from the jugular vein before and one month after pacemaker placement. Total erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and differential leukocyte count were done on automatic veterinary flow cytometry hematologic analyzer. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen level, D-dimers and kaolin-activated thromboelastography was measured from citrated blood. Results: We found an increase in red blood cell mass and decrease in platelet count, while coagulation tests did not diff er between samplings. Conclusion: Right-ventricle pacing seems to have no influence on hemostasis in rabbits

    Impact of platelet phenotype on myocardial infarction

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    In acute myocardial infarction patients the injured vascular wall triggers thrombus formation in the damage site. Fibrin fibers and blood cellular elements are the major components of thrombus formed in acute occlusion of coronary arteries. It has been established that the initial thrombus is primarily composed of activated platelets rapidly stabilized by fibrin fibers. This review highlights the role of platelet membrane phenotype in pathophysiology of myocardial infarction. Here, we regard platelet phenotype as quantitative and qualitative parameters of the plasma membrane outer surface, which are crucial for platelet participation in blood coagulation, development of local inflammation and tissue repair

    Personalize, participate, predict, and prevent: 4Ps in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a complex, immune-mediated, disorder which leads to several gastrointestinal and systemic manifestations determining a poor quality of life, disability, and other negative health outcomes. Our knowledge of this condition has greatly improved over the last few decades, and a comprehensive management should take into account both biological (i.e., disease-related, patient-related) and non-biological (i.e., socioeconomic, cultural, environmental, behavioral) factors which contribute to the disease phenotype. From this point of view, the so called 4P medicine framework, including personalization, prediction, prevention, and participation could be useful for tailoring ad hoc interventions in IBD patients. In this review, we discuss the cutting-edge issues regarding personalization in special settings (i.e., pregnancy, oncology, infectious diseases), patient participation (i.e., how to communicate, disability, tackling stigma and resilience, quality of care), disease prediction (i.e., faecal markers, response to treatments), and prevention (i.e., dysplasia through endoscopy, infections through vaccinations, and post-surgical recurrence). Finally, we provide an outlook discussing the unmet needs for implementing this conceptual framework in clinical practice

    Role of the advanced glycation end products receptor in Crohn’s disease inflammation

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    The Spectrum of Differences between Childhood and Adulthood Celiac Disease

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    An old saying states that ‚Äė‚Äôchildren are not little adults‚ÄĚ and this certainly holds true for celiac disease, as there are many peculiar aspects regarding its epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical presentations, associated diseases, and response to treatment in pediatric compared to adult populations, to such an extent that it merits a description of its own. In fact, contrary to the past when it was thought that celiac disease was a disorder predominantly affecting childhood and characterized by a malabsorption syndrome, nowadays it is well recognized that it affects also adult and elderly people with an impressive variability of clinical presentation. In general, the clinical guidelines for diagnosis recommend starting with specific serologic testing in all suspected subjects, including those suffering from extraintestinal related conditions, and performing upper endoscopy with appropriate biopsy sampling of duodenal mucosa in case of positivity. The latter may be omitted in young patients showing high titers of anti-transglutaminase antibodies. The subsequent management of a celiac patient differs substantially depending on the age at diagnosis and should be based on the important consideration that this is a lifelong condition

    Mesenchymal stromal cells: an opportunity to treat chronic inflammatory intestinal conditions

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    Mesenchymal stromal cells: an opportunity to treat chronic inflammatory intestinal conditions
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