37 research outputs found

    Electrophysiological efficacy of temperature-controlled bipolar radiofrequency†

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    OBJECTIVE Clinical success of atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation depends on persistent block of electrical conduction across the ablation lines. The fate of ablations performed with temperature-controlled bipolar radiofrequency (RF) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to validate the electrophysiological (EP) efficacy of these lesions, recording pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) after open chest ablation, in the human being. METHODS Ten consecutive mitral patients (mean age: 53 ± 12 years) with concomitant AF were treated with the Cobra Revolution (Estech, San Ramon, CA, USA) bipolar RF device were enrolled for EP assessment. During surgery, pairs of additional temporary wires were positioned on the right PVs (RPV) and on the roof of the left atrium (RLA), before ablation. Pacing thresholds (PTs) were assessed before, after a single encircling ablation and at chest's closure. EP study was repeated before discharge and at 3 weeks. RLA wires served as control. RESULTS Baseline PTs were 0.83 ± 0.81 mA (range 0.2-3 mA) from RPV and 1.13 ± 0.78 mA (range 0.3-3 mA) from RLA. PVI was reached in all patients acutely, and was maintained at 1 week. At 3 weeks, the PTs were 14.3 ± 4.3 mA from RPV (range 7-20 mA) and 3.1 ± 1.3 mA (range 1.5-7 mA) from RLA. All patients were discharged in sinus rhythm. CONCLUSIONS Cobra Revolution temperature-controlled bipolar RF provides complete PVI after a single ablation up to 1 week. This notwithstanding, only 30% of patients were completely isolated (exit block validation) at 3 week

    Application of X-Band Wave Radar for Coastal Dynamic Analysis: Case Test of Bagnara Calabra (South Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

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    Sea state knowledge has a key role in evaluation of coastal erosion, the assessment of vulnerability and potential in coastal zone utilization, and development of numerical models to predict its evolution. X-band radar measurements were conducted to observe the spatial and temporal variation of the sea-state parameters along a 3 km long sandy-gravelly pocket beaches forming a littoral cell on Bagnara Calabra. We produced a sequence of 1000 images of the sea state extending offshore up to 1 mile. The survey has allowed monitoring the coastline, the directional wave spectra, the sea surface current fields, and the significant wave heights and detecting strong rip currents which cause scours around the open inlets and affect the stability of the submerged reef-type breakwaters. The possibility to validate the data acquired with other datasets (e.g., LaMMA Consortium) demonstrates the potential of the X-band radar technology as a monitoring tool to advance the understanding of the linkages between sea conditions, nearshore sediment dynamics, and coastal change. This work proves the possibility to obtain relevant information (e.g., wave number, period, and direction) for evaluation of local erosion phenomena and of morphological changes in the nearshore and surf zone

    COVID-19 and atrial fibrillation: Intercepting lines

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    Almost 20% of COVID-19 patients have a history of atrial fibrillation (AF), but also a new-onset AF represents a frequent complication in COVID-19. Clinical evidence demonstrates that COVID-19, by promoting the evolution of a prothrombotic state, increases the susceptibility to arrhythmic events during the infective stages and presumably during post-recovery. AF itself is the most frequent form of arrhythmia and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. One of the molecular factors involved in COVID-19-related AF episodes is the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 availability. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses ACE2 to enter and infect multiple cells. Atrial ACE2 internalization after binding to SARS-CoV-2 results in a raise of angiotensin (Ang) II, and in a suppression of cardioprotective Ang(1–7) formation, and thereby promoting cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, several pharmacological agents used in COVID-19 patients may have a higher risk of inducing electrophysiological changes and cardiac dysfunction. Azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir, ibrutinib, and remdesivir, used in the treatment of COVID-19, may predispose to an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia. In this review, putative mechanisms involved in COVID-19-related AF episodes and the cardiovascular safety profile of drugs used for the treatment of COVID-19 are summarized

    The Effect of Anatomical Location of Lymph Node Metastases on Cancer Specific Survival in Patients with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

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    BackgroundPositive nodal status (pN1) is an independent predictor of survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients. However, no study to date has tested whether the location of lymph node (LN) metastases does affect oncologic outcomes in a population submitted to radical nephrectomy (RN) and extended lymph node dissection (eLND).ObjectiveTo describe nodal disease dissemination in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) patients and to assess the effect of the anatomical sites and the number of nodal areas affected on cancer specific mortality (CSM).Design, setting and partecipantsThe study included 415 patients who underwent RN and eLND, defined as the removal of hilar, side-specific (pre/paraaortic or pre/paracaval) and interaortocaval LNs for ccRCC, at two institutions.Outcome measurement and statistical analysisDescriptive statistics were used to depict nodal dissemination in pN1 patients, stratified according to nodal site and number of involved areas. Multivariable Cox regression analyses and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to explore the relationship between pN1 disease features and survival outcomes.Results and limitationsMedian number of removed LN was 14 (IQR 9–19); 23% of patients were pN1. Among patients with one involved nodal site, 54 and 26% of patients were positive only in side-specific and interaortocaval station, respectively. The most frequent nodal site was the interaortocaval and side-specific one, for right and left ccRCC, respectively. Interaortocaval nodal positivity (HR 2.3, CI 95%: 1.3–3.9, p < 0.01) represented an independent predictor of CSM.ConclusionsWhen ccRCC patient harbour nodal disease, its spreading can occur at any nodal station without involving the others. The presence of interoartocaval positive nodes does affect oncologic outcomes.Patient summaryLymph node invasion in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma is not following a fixed anatomical pattern. An extended lymph node dissection, during treatment for primary kidney tumour, would aid patient risk stratification and multimodality upfront treatment

    E-scooter accidents: A rising cause of kidney injury

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    Introduction: E-scooters recently gained mass expansion, leading to increased use-related injuries, most commonly head trauma, facial, and extremity fractures, while abdominal trauma with kidney involvement is less frequent. Here we present two cases of e-scooter-related high-grade blunt kidney trauma.Case reports: The first case was a 24-year-old male presenting with right abdominal pain after e-scooter autonomous right fall. Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) was negative, while abdominal CT showed a 3 cm middle-renal laceration. Six-day CT showed minimal urinary extravasation. Neither anemization nor impaired kidney function was observed; the patient was discharged after 9 days. The second case was a 42-year-old male presenting with right flank pain and ipsilateral chest pain after autonomous right fall. Thoracic X-ray revealed multiple rib fractures, while abdominal echography showed a non-homogeneous right kidney with a 1.5 cm perirenal fluid layer. Abdominal CT revealed 2.5 x 4 x 3.5 cm full-thickness middle-upper renal parenchyma laceration and confirmed the perirenal hematoma, while demonstrating two hepatic lesions. A series of CT and ultrasounds confirmed the stability of the aforementioned lesions and reduction of the perirenal hematoma; laboratory findings didn't show anemization nor impaired renal function. The patient was discharged after 10 days.Discussion: Widespread usage of e-scooter is accompanied by an uptick in traumatic events. The chance of renal trauma increases when lateral fall occurs. In our cases patients were hemodynamically stable, the kidney injury severity was high-grade, and non-operative management was effective.Conclusion: E-scooter accidents could lead to high-grade renal injuries, amenable of non-operative management; these events are expected to raise