170 research outputs found

    Hamiltonian Simulation by Qubitization

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    We present the problem of approximating the time-evolution operator eβˆ’iH^te^{-i\hat{H}t} to error Ο΅\epsilon, where the Hamiltonian H^=(⟨Gβˆ£βŠ—I^)U^(∣GβŸ©βŠ—I^)\hat{H}=(\langle G|\otimes\hat{\mathcal{I}})\hat{U}(|G\rangle\otimes\hat{\mathcal{I}}) is the projection of a unitary oracle U^\hat{U} onto the state ∣G⟩|G\rangle created by another unitary oracle. Our algorithm solves this with a query complexity O(t+log⁑(1/Ο΅))\mathcal{O}\big(t+\log({1/\epsilon})\big) to both oracles that is optimal with respect to all parameters in both the asymptotic and non-asymptotic regime, and also with low overhead, using at most two additional ancilla qubits. This approach to Hamiltonian simulation subsumes important prior art considering Hamiltonians which are dd-sparse or a linear combination of unitaries, leading to significant improvements in space and gate complexity, such as a quadratic speed-up for precision simulations. It also motivates useful new instances, such as where H^\hat{H} is a density matrix. A key technical result is `qubitization', which uses the controlled version of these oracles to embed any H^\hat{H} in an invariant SU(2)\text{SU}(2) subspace. A large class of operator functions of H^\hat{H} can then be computed with optimal query complexity, of which eβˆ’iH^te^{-i\hat{H}t} is a special case.Comment: 23 pages, 1 figure; v2: updated notation; v3: accepted versio

    Deterministic and cascadable conditional phase gate for photonic qubits

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    Previous analyses of conditional \phi-phase gates for photonic qubits that treat cross-phase modulation (XPM) in a causal, multimode, quantum field setting suggest that a large (~\pi rad) nonlinear phase shift is always accompanied by fidelity-degrading noise [J. H. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. A 73, 062305 (2006); J. Gea-Banacloche, Phys. Rev. A 81, 043823 (2010)]. Using an atomic V-system to model an XPM medium, we present a conditional phase gate that, for sufficiently small nonzero \phi, has high fidelity. The gate is made cascadable by using using a special measurement, principal mode projection, to exploit the quantum Zeno effect and preclude the accumulation of fidelity-degrading departures from the principal-mode Hilbert space when both control and target photons illuminate the gate

    Universal fault-tolerant gates on concatenated stabilizer codes

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    It is an oft-cited fact that no quantum code can support a set of fault-tolerant logical gates that is both universal and transversal. This no-go theorem is generally responsible for the interest in alternative universality constructions including magic state distillation. Widely overlooked, however, is the possibility of non-transversal, yet still fault-tolerant, gates that work directly on small quantum codes. Here we demonstrate precisely the existence of such gates. In particular, we show how the limits of non-transversality can be overcome by performing rounds of intermediate error-correction to create logical gates on stabilizer codes that use no ancillas other than those required for syndrome measurement. Moreover, the logical gates we construct, the most prominent examples being Toffoli and controlled-controlled-Z, often complete universal gate sets on their codes. We detail such universal constructions for the smallest quantum codes, the 5-qubit and 7-qubit codes, and then proceed to generalize the approach. One remarkable result of this generalization is that any nondegenerate stabilizer code with a complete set of fault-tolerant single-qubit Clifford gates has a universal set of fault-tolerant gates. Another is the interaction of logical qubits across different stabilizer codes, which, for instance, implies a broadly applicable method of code switching.Comment: 18 pages + 5 pages appendix, 12 figure
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