380 research outputs found

    Mathematical software for gas transmission networks

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    This thesis is concerned with the development of numerical software for the simulation of gas transmission networks. This involves developing software for the solution of a large system of stiff differential/algebraic equations (DAE) containing frequent severe disturbances. The disturbances arise due to the varying consumer demands and the operation of network controlling devices such as the compressors. Special strategies are developed to solve the DAE system efficiently using a variable-step integrator. Two sets of strategies are devised; one for the implicit methods such as the semi-implicit Runge-Kutta method, and the other for the linearly implicit Rosenbrock-type method. Four integrators, based on different numerical methods, have been implemented and the performance of each one is compared with the British Gas network analysis program PAN, using a number of large, realistic transmission networks. The results demonstrate that the variable-step integrators are reliable and efficient. An efficient sparse matrix decomposition scheme is developed to solve the large, sparse system of equations that arise during the integration of the DAE system. The decomposition scheme fully exploits the special structure of the coefficient matrix. Lastly, for certain networks, the existing simulation programs fail to compute a feasible solution because of the interactions of the controlling devices in the network. To overcome this difficulty, the problem is formulated as a variational inequality model and solved numerically using an optimization routine from the NAG library (NAGFLIB(l982)). The reliability of the model is illustrated using three test networks

    Discovering Gender Differences in Facial Emotion Recognition via Implicit Behavioral Cues

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    We examine the utility of implicit behavioral cues in the form of EEG brain signals and eye movements for gender recognition (GR) and emotion recognition (ER). Specifically, the examined cues are acquired via low-cost, off-the-shelf sensors. We asked 28 viewers (14 female) to recognize emotions from unoccluded (no mask) as well as partially occluded (eye and mouth masked) emotive faces. Obtained experimental results reveal that (a) reliable GR and ER is achievable with EEG and eye features, (b) differential cognitive processing especially for negative emotions is observed for males and females and (c) some of these cognitive differences manifest under partial face occlusion, as typified by the eye and mouth mask conditions.Comment: To be published in the Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction.201

    Neural Graph Collaborative Filtering

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    Learning vector representations (aka. embeddings) of users and items lies at the core of modern recommender systems. Ranging from early matrix factorization to recently emerged deep learning based methods, existing efforts typically obtain a user's (or an item's) embedding by mapping from pre-existing features that describe the user (or the item), such as ID and attributes. We argue that an inherent drawback of such methods is that, the collaborative signal, which is latent in user-item interactions, is not encoded in the embedding process. As such, the resultant embeddings may not be sufficient to capture the collaborative filtering effect. In this work, we propose to integrate the user-item interactions -- more specifically the bipartite graph structure -- into the embedding process. We develop a new recommendation framework Neural Graph Collaborative Filtering (NGCF), which exploits the user-item graph structure by propagating embeddings on it. This leads to the expressive modeling of high-order connectivity in user-item graph, effectively injecting the collaborative signal into the embedding process in an explicit manner. We conduct extensive experiments on three public benchmarks, demonstrating significant improvements over several state-of-the-art models like HOP-Rec and Collaborative Memory Network. Further analysis verifies the importance of embedding propagation for learning better user and item representations, justifying the rationality and effectiveness of NGCF. Codes are available at https://github.com/xiangwang1223/neural_graph_collaborative_filtering.Comment: SIGIR 2019; the latest version of NGCF paper, which is distinct from the version published in ACM Digital Librar

    TransNFCM: Translation-Based Neural Fashion Compatibility Modeling

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    Identifying mix-and-match relationships between fashion items is an urgent task in a fashion e-commerce recommender system. It will significantly enhance user experience and satisfaction. However, due to the challenges of inferring the rich yet complicated set of compatibility patterns in a large e-commerce corpus of fashion items, this task is still underexplored. Inspired by the recent advances in multi-relational knowledge representation learning and deep neural networks, this paper proposes a novel Translation-based Neural Fashion Compatibility Modeling (TransNFCM) framework, which jointly optimizes fashion item embeddings and category-specific complementary relations in a unified space via an end-to-end learning manner. TransNFCM places items in a unified embedding space where a category-specific relation (category-comp-category) is modeled as a vector translation operating on the embeddings of compatible items from the corresponding categories. By this way, we not only capture the specific notion of compatibility conditioned on a specific pair of complementary categories, but also preserve the global notion of compatibility. We also design a deep fashion item encoder which exploits the complementary characteristic of visual and textual features to represent the fashion products. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that uses category-specific complementary relations to model the category-aware compatibility between items in a translation-based embedding space. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of TransNFCM over the state-of-the-arts on two real-world datasets.Comment: Accepted in AAAI 2019 conferenc

    KGAT: Knowledge Graph Attention Network for Recommendation

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    To provide more accurate, diverse, and explainable recommendation, it is compulsory to go beyond modeling user-item interactions and take side information into account. Traditional methods like factorization machine (FM) cast it as a supervised learning problem, which assumes each interaction as an independent instance with side information encoded. Due to the overlook of the relations among instances or items (e.g., the director of a movie is also an actor of another movie), these methods are insufficient to distill the collaborative signal from the collective behaviors of users. In this work, we investigate the utility of knowledge graph (KG), which breaks down the independent interaction assumption by linking items with their attributes. We argue that in such a hybrid structure of KG and user-item graph, high-order relations --- which connect two items with one or multiple linked attributes --- are an essential factor for successful recommendation. We propose a new method named Knowledge Graph Attention Network (KGAT) which explicitly models the high-order connectivities in KG in an end-to-end fashion. It recursively propagates the embeddings from a node's neighbors (which can be users, items, or attributes) to refine the node's embedding, and employs an attention mechanism to discriminate the importance of the neighbors. Our KGAT is conceptually advantageous to existing KG-based recommendation methods, which either exploit high-order relations by extracting paths or implicitly modeling them with regularization. Empirical results on three public benchmarks show that KGAT significantly outperforms state-of-the-art methods like Neural FM and RippleNet. Further studies verify the efficacy of embedding propagation for high-order relation modeling and the interpretability benefits brought by the attention mechanism.Comment: KDD 2019 research trac