25 research outputs found

    Deconstructing Decapitation in Late Roman Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire, UK

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    The Roman conquest in Britain (AD 43) led to significant changes in indigenous settlements and agricultural systems, population diversity, social organization, economic activities, and funerary traditions. Archaeological investigations of burials from the first to fifth centuries AD in Britain have revealed a complex array of burial treatments and attitudes toward the dead, including decapitation burials, which are the most common form of differential burial represented in this period. Traditional interpretations of these burials have included infanticide, punitive execution, trophy taking, fear of the dead, and veneration practices. This project investigates a sample of decapitation burials from Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire dating to the Late Roman Period (3rd-5th c. AD) using quantitative and qualitative comparisons of skeletal remains, grave goods and other associated materials. The multi-scalar analysis of bioarchaeological and mortuary treatments demonstrated that no specific variable automatically distinguished a decapitated individual as an outlier or social deviant, reinforcing the need for the systematic application of contextual analysis, including osteological profiles, in our methodological assessments of lived experiences and the expression of identity in Late Romano-British society. This project contributes to the growing cross-disciplinary literature on how ancient populations utilized the body as an instrument in the performance of ritual violence, allowing a more nuanced interpretation of the culturally constructed body as a salient material object category in the Roman Iron Age

    The graduate student experience in the neoliberal academy

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    This commentary discusses graduate student perspectives on the disjuncture between the neoliberal framing of value as pursuit of economic profit and the academic community’s pursuit of knowledge. Declining opportunities and the devaluing of different frames of knowledge and practice in the academy suppress graduate students’ ability to contribute to their chosen fields of study and to create value in novel ways. Our participation as graduate students in the academic community, including organizations such as American Association of University Professors, has been instrumental in articulating the interconnectedness of the systemic consequences that the neoliberal constitution of value has on the campus and community.This commentary discusses graduate student perspectives on the disjuncture between the neoliberal framing of value as pursuit of economic profit and the academic community’s pursuit of knowledge. Declining opportunities and the devaluing of different frames of knowledge and practice in the academy suppress graduate students’ ability to contribute to their chosen fields of study and to create value in novel ways. Our participation as graduate students in the academic community, including organizations such as American Association of University Professors, has been instrumental in articulating the interconnectedness of the systemic consequences that the neoliberal constitution of value has on the campus and community

    Uncovering obsessive-compulsive disorder risk genes in a pediatric cohort by high-resolution analysis of copy number variation

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    Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric condition, thought to have a significant genetic component. When onset occurs in childhood, affected individuals generally exhibit different characteristics from adult-onset OCD, including higher prevalence in males and increased heritability. Since neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with copy number variations (CNVs), we considered their potential role in the etiology of OCD. Methods We genotyped 307 unrelated pediatric probands with idiopathic OCD (including 174 that were part of complete parent-child trios) and compared their genotypes with those of 3861 population controls, to identify rare CNVs (<0.5 % frequency) of at least 15 kb in size that might contribute to OCD. Results We uncovered de novo CNVs in 4/174 probands (2.3 %). Our case cohort was enriched for CNVs in genes that encode targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (nominal p = 1.85 × 10−03; FDR=0.09), similar to previous findings in autism and schizophrenia. These results also identified deletions or duplications of exons in genes involved in neuronal migration (ASTN2), synapse formation (NLGN1 and PTPRD), and postsynaptic scaffolding (DLGAP1 and DLGAP2), which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of OCD. Four cases had CNVs involving known genomic disorder loci (1q21.1-21.2, 15q11.2-q13.1, 16p13.11, and 17p12). Further, we identified BTBD9 as a candidate gene for OCD. We also sequenced exomes of ten “CNV positive” trios and identified in one an additional plausibly relevant mutation: a 13 bp exonic deletion in DRD4. Conclusions Our findings suggest that rare CNVs may contribute to the etiology of OCD.http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/134675/1/11689_2016_Article_9170.pd

    Cerebral palsy and developmental intellectual disability in children younger than 5 years: Findings from the GBD-WHO Rehabilitation Database 2019.

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    Objective: Children with developmental disabilities are associated with a high risk of poor school enrollment and educational attainment without timely and appropriate support. Epidemiological data on cerebral palsy and associated comorbidities required for policy intervention in global health are lacking. This paper set out to report the best available evidence on the global and regional prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) and developmental intellectual disability and the associated "years lived with disability" (YLDs) among children under 5 years of age in 2019. Methods: We analyzed the collaborative 2019 Rehabilitation Database of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study and World Health Organization for neurological and mental disorders available for 204 countries and territories. Point prevalence and YLDs with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI) are presented. Results: Globally, 8.1 million (7.1-9.2) or 1.2% of children under 5 years are estimated to have CP with 16.1 million (11.5-21.0) or 2.4% having intellectual disability. Over 98% resided in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). CP and intellectual disability accounted for 6.5% and 4.5% of the aggregate YLDs from all causes of adverse health outcomes respectively. African Region recorded the highest prevalence of CP (1.6%) while South-East Asia Region had the highest prevalence of intellectual disability. The top 10 countries accounted for 57.2% of the global prevalence of CP and 62.0% of the global prevalence of intellectual disability. Conclusion: Based on this Database, CP and intellectual disability are highly prevalent and associated with substantial YLDs among children under 5 years worldwide. Universal early detection and support services are warranted, particularly in LMICs to optimize school readiness for these children toward inclusive education as envisioned by the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals

    Discordant identification of pediatric severe sepsis by research and clinical definitions in the SPROUT international point prevalence study

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    Introduction: Consensus criteria for pediatric severe sepsis have standardized enrollment for research studies. However, the extent to which critically ill children identified by consensus criteria reflect physician diagnosis of severe sepsis, which underlies external validity for pediatric sepsis research, is not known. We sought to determine the agreement between physician diagnosis and consensus criteria to identify pediatric patients with severe sepsis across a network of international pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). Methods: We conducted a point prevalence study involving 128 PICUs in 26 countries across 6 continents. Over the course of 5 study days, 6925 PICU patients &lt;18 years of age were screened, and 706 with severe sepsis defined either by physician diagnosis or on the basis of 2005 International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference consensus criteria were enrolled. The primary endpoint was agreement of pediatric severe sepsis between physician diagnosis and consensus criteria as measured using Cohen's ?. Secondary endpoints included characteristics and clinical outcomes for patients identified using physician diagnosis versus consensus criteria. Results: Of the 706 patients, 301 (42.6 %) met both definitions. The inter-rater agreement (? ± SE) between physician diagnosis and consensus criteria was 0.57 ± 0.02. Of the 438 patients with a physician's diagnosis of severe sepsis, only 69 % (301 of 438) would have been eligible to participate in a clinical trial of pediatric severe sepsis that enrolled patients based on consensus criteria. Patients with physician-diagnosed severe sepsis who did not meet consensus criteria were younger and had lower severity of illness and lower PICU mortality than those meeting consensus criteria or both definitions. After controlling for age, severity of illness, number of comorbid conditions, and treatment in developed versus resource-limited regions, patients identified with severe sepsis by physician diagnosis alone or by consensus criteria alone did not have PICU mortality significantly different from that of patients identified by both physician diagnosis and consensus criteria. Conclusions: Physician diagnosis of pediatric severe sepsis achieved only moderate agreement with consensus criteria, with physicians diagnosing severe sepsis more broadly. Consequently, the results of a research study based on consensus criteria may have limited generalizability to nearly one-third of PICU patients diagnosed with severe sepsis

    Genome-wide association study of pediatric obsessive-compulsive traits: shared genetic risk between traits and disorder

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    Using a novel trait-based measure, we examined genetic variants associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) traits and tested whether OC traits and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) shared genetic risk. We conducted a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) of OC traits using the Toronto Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (TOCS) in 5018 unrelated Caucasian children and adolescents from the community (Spit for Science sample). We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants associated with OC traits from the community would be associated with clinical OCD using a meta-analysis of all currently available OCD cases. Shared genetic risk was examined between OC traits and OCD in the respective samples using polygenic risk score and genetic correlation analyses. A locus tagged by rs7856850 in an intron of PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase δ) was significantly associated with OC traits at the genome-wide significance level (p = 2.48 × 10-8). rs7856850 was also associated with OCD in a meta-analysis of OCD case/control genome-wide datasets (p = 0.0069). The direction of effect was the same as in the community sample. Polygenic risk scores from OC traits were significantly associated with OCD in case/control datasets and vice versa (p's < 0.01). OC traits were highly, but not significantly, genetically correlated with OCD (rg = 0.71, p = 0.062). We report the first validated genome-wide significant variant for OC traits in PTPRD, downstream of the most significant locus in a previous OCD GWAS. OC traits measured in the community sample shared genetic risk with OCD case/control status. Our results demonstrate the feasibility and power of using trait-based approaches in community samples for genetic discovery

    Uncovering obsessive-compulsive disorder risk genes in a pediatric cohort by high-resolution analysis of copy number variation

    No full text
    Abstract Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric condition, thought to have a significant genetic component. When onset occurs in childhood, affected individuals generally exhibit different characteristics from adult-onset OCD, including higher prevalence in males and increased heritability. Since neuropsychiatric conditions are associated with copy number variations (CNVs), we considered their potential role in the etiology of OCD. Methods We genotyped 307 unrelated pediatric probands with idiopathic OCD (including 174 that were part of complete parent-child trios) and compared their genotypes with those of 3861 population controls, to identify rare CNVs (<0.5 % frequency) of at least 15 kb in size that might contribute to OCD. Results We uncovered de novo CNVs in 4/174 probands (2.3 %). Our case cohort was enriched for CNVs in genes that encode targets of the fragile X mental retardation protein (nominal p = 1.85 × 10−03; FDR=0.09), similar to previous findings in autism and schizophrenia. These results also identified deletions or duplications of exons in genes involved in neuronal migration (ASTN2), synapse formation (NLGN1 and PTPRD), and postsynaptic scaffolding (DLGAP1 and DLGAP2), which may be relevant to the pathogenesis of OCD. Four cases had CNVs involving known genomic disorder loci (1q21.1-21.2, 15q11.2-q13.1, 16p13.11, and 17p12). Further, we identified BTBD9 as a candidate gene for OCD. We also sequenced exomes of ten “CNV positive” trios and identified in one an additional plausibly relevant mutation: a 13 bp exonic deletion in DRD4. Conclusions Our findings suggest that rare CNVs may contribute to the etiology of OCD
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