5 research outputs found

    Cambrian reworking of the southern Australian Proterozoic Curnamona Province: constraints from regional shear-zone systems

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    <p>Palaeoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Curnamona Province, southern Australia, are crosscut by a system of regional-scale shear zones that locally dominate the terrain. Combined metamorphic and geochronological data from localities across the southern Curnamona Province indicate that the peak metamorphic shear-zone assemblages formed during the Cambrian (<em>c</em>. 500 Ma) Delamerian Orogeny, and not during the waning stages of the <em>c</em>. 1600 Ma Olarian Orogeny as has been previously asserted. A combination of monazite chemical U–Th–Pb and garnet Sm–Nd geochronology indicates that shear-zone fabrics formed between 497 and 517 Ma. Peak metamorphic conditions obtained from prograde garnet–staurolite–biotite–muscovite–chlorite–quartz assemblages are between 530 and 600 °C at pressures of around 5 kbar. The apparent absence of significant up-pressure prograde paths recorded by the mineral assemblages, together with modest (10–20%) Delamerian shortening, suggests that attainment of burial to depths of around 18 km was largely a function of pre-Delamerian sedimentation over the interval from <em>c</em>. 700 to 530 Ma. The spatial association between the pattern of basement metamorphism and reactivation during the Delamerian Orogeny is interpreted to reflect in part the distribution of pre-Delamerian sedimentation, and highlights the potential importance of pre-orogenic processes such as basin development in controlling the style and pattern of later terrain reactivation and reworking. </p

    DataSheet1_Modeling the biomechanics of cells on microcarriers in a stirred-tank bioreactor: an ABM-CFD coupling approach.pdf

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    Highly productive and efficient biomass growth in bioreactors is an essential bioprocess outcome in many industrial applications. Large-scale biomass creation in the cultivated meat industry will be critical given the demand size in the conventional meat and seafood sectors. However, many challenges must be overcome before cultivated meat and seafood become commercially viable, including cost reductions of cell culture media, bioprocess design innovation and optimization, and scaling up in the longer term. Computational modeling and simulation can help to address many of these challenges and can be a far cheaper and faster alternative to performing physical experiments. Computer modeling can also help researchers pinpoint system interactions that matter and guide researchers to identify those parameters that should be changed in later designs for eventual optimization. This work developed a computational model that combines agent-based modeling and computational fluid dynamics to study biomass growth as a function of the operative conditions of stirred-tank bioreactors. The focus was to analyze how the mechanical stress induced by rotor speed can influence the growth of cells attached to spherical microcarriers. The computer simulation results reproduced observations from physical experiments that high rotor speeds reduce cell growth rates and induce cell death under the high mechanical stresses induced at these stir speeds. Moreover, the results suggest that modeling cell death and cell quiescence is required to recapitulate these observations from physical experiments. These simulation outcomes are the first step towards more comprehensive models that, combined with experimental observations, will improve our knowledge of biomass production in bioreactors for cultivated meat and other industries.</p