23,675 research outputs found

    Customer Concerns about Uncertainty and Willingness to Pay in Leasing Solar Power Systems

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    Although solar power systems are considered as one of the most promising renewable energy sources, some uncertain factors as well as the high cost could be barriers which create customer resistance. Leasing instead of purchase, as one type of product service system, could be an option to reduce consumer concern on such issues. This study focuses on consumer concerns about uncertainty and willingness to pay for leasing solar power systems. Conjoint analysis method is used to find part worth utilities and estimate gaps of willingness to pay between attribute levels, including various leasing time lengths. The results show the part worth utilities an d relative importance of four major attributes, including leasing time. Among concerns about uncertainties, government subsidy, electricity price, reliability, and rise of new generation solar power systems were found to be significantly related to the additional willingness-to-pay for a shorter leasing time. Cluster analysis is used to identify two groups standing for high and low concerns about uncertainty. People with more concerns tend to pay more for a shorter lease time

    1++1^{++} Nonet Singlet-Octet Mixing Angle, Strange Quark Mass, and Strange Quark Condensate

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    Two strategies are taken into account to determine the f1(1420)f_1(1420)-f1(1285)f_1(1285) mixing angle θ\theta. (i) First, using the Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula together with the K1(1270)K_1(1270)-K1(1400)K_1(1400) mixing angle θK1=(34±13)\theta_{K_1}=(-34\pm 13)^\circ extracted from the data for B(BK1(1270)γ),B(BK1(1400)γ),B(τK1(1270)ντ){\cal B}(B\to K_1(1270) \gamma), {\cal B}(B\to K_1(1400) \gamma), {\cal B}(\tau\to K_1(1270) \nu_\tau), and B(τK1(1420)ντ){\cal B}(\tau\to K_1(1420) \nu_\tau), gave θ=(2323+17)\theta = (23^{+17}_{-23})^\circ. (ii) Second, from the study of the ratio for f1(1285)ϕγf_1(1285) \to \phi\gamma and f1(1285)ρ0γf_1(1285) \to \rho^0\gamma branching fractions, we have two-fold solution θ=(19.44.6+4.5)\theta=(19.4^{+4.5}_{-4.6})^\circ or (51.14.6+4.5)(51.1^{+4.5}_{-4.6})^\circ. Combining these two analyses, we thus obtain θ=(19.44.6+4.5)\theta=(19.4^{+4.5}_{-4.6})^\circ. We further compute the strange quark mass and strange quark condensate from the analysis of the f1(1420)f1(1285)f_1(1420)-f_1(1285) mass difference QCD sum rule, where the operator-product-expansion series is up to dimension six and to O(αs3,ms2αs2){\cal O}(\alpha_s^3, m_s^2 \alpha_s^2) accuracy. Using the average of the recent lattice results and the θ\theta value that we have obtained as inputs, we get /=0.41±0.09/ =0.41 \pm 0.09.Comment: 10 pages, 1 table, published versio

    Electron-Phonon Interactions for Optical Phonon Modes in Few-Layer Graphene

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    We present a first-principles study of the electron-phonon (e-ph) interactions and their contributions to the linewidths for the optical phonon modes at Γ\Gamma and K in one to three-layer graphene. It is found that due to the interlayer coupling and the stacking geometry, the high-frequency optical phonon modes in few-layer graphene couple with different valence and conduction bands, giving rise to different e-ph interaction strengths for these modes. Some of the multilayer optical modes derived from the Γ\Gamma-E2gE_{2g} mode of monolayer graphene exhibit slightly higher frequencies and much reduced linewidths. In addition, the linewidths of K-A1A'_1 related modes in multilayers depend on the stacking pattern and decrease with increasing layer numbers.Comment: 6 pages,5 figures, submitted to PR

    Single particle momentum and angular distributions in hadron-hadron collisions at ultrahigh energies

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    The forward-backward charged multiplicity distribution (P n sub F, n sub B) of events in the 540 GeV antiproton-proton collider has been extensively studied by the UA5 Collaboration. It was pointed out that the distribution with respect to n = n sub F + n sub B satisfies approximate KNO scaling and that with respect to Z = n sub F - n sub B is binomial. The geometrical model of hadron-hadron collision interprets the large multiplicity fluctuation as due to the widely different nature of collisions at different impact parameters b. For a single impact parameter b, the collision in the geometrical model should exhibit stochastic behavior. This separation of the stochastic and nonstochastic (KNO) aspects of multiparticle production processes gives conceptually a lucid and attractive picture of such collisions, leading to the concept of partition temperature T sub p and the single particle momentum spectrum to be discussed in detail

    ATM optical contamination study - Reaction control system rocket engine space plume flow fields Interim report

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    Apollo telescopic experiment contamination by space vehicle exhaust product