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### A Parametric Study of Part Distortions in FDM Using 3D FEA

We developed a finite element model to simulate the fused deposition modeling (FDM)
process. The model considers the coupled thermal and mechanical analysis and incorporates the
element activation function to mimic the additive nature of FDM. Due to repetitive heating and
cooling in the FDM process, residual stresses accumulate inside the part during the deposition.
The model is also used to evaluate the part distortions, revealing distortion features such as
vaulting shapes and distortion-core shifting. A parametric study, three factors and three levels,
was performed to evaluate the effects of the deposition parameters on residual stresses and part
distortions. Prototype models with larger sizes were fabricated, measured, and compared with the
simulations.
The simulation results show that (1) the scan speed is the most significant factor to part
distortions, followed by the layer thickness, (2) the road width alone is insignificant, however,
the interaction between the road width and the layer thickness is significant too, and (3) there are
other two-way and three-way interactions that are of secondary significance. Residual stresses
increase with the layer thickness, and increase with the road width, to a less extent though, yet
largely affected by the layer thickness. The FDM part distortions from the experiment show a
similar trend as in the simulations, but no quantitative correlation.Mechanical Engineerin

### Customer Concerns about Uncertainty and Willingness to Pay in Leasing Solar Power Systems

Although solar power systems are considered as one of the most promising renewable energy sources, some uncertain factors as well as the high cost could be barriers which create customer resistance. Leasing instead of purchase, as one type of product service system, could be an option to reduce consumer concern on such issues. This study focuses on consumer concerns about uncertainty and willingness to pay for leasing solar power systems. Conjoint analysis method is used to find part worth utilities and estimate gaps of willingness to pay between attribute levels, including various leasing time lengths. The results show the part worth utilities an d relative importance of four major attributes, including leasing time. Among concerns about uncertainties, government subsidy, electricity price, reliability, and rise of new generation solar power systems were found to be significantly related to the additional willingness-to-pay for a shorter leasing time. Cluster analysis is used to identify two groups standing for high and low concerns about uncertainty. People with more concerns tend to pay more for a shorter lease time

### $1^{++}$ Nonet Singlet-Octet Mixing Angle, Strange Quark Mass, and Strange Quark Condensate

Two strategies are taken into account to determine the
$f_1(1420)$-$f_1(1285)$ mixing angle $\theta$. (i) First, using the
Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula together with the $K_1(1270)$-$K_1(1400)$ mixing
angle $\theta_{K_1}=(-34\pm 13)^\circ$ extracted from the data for ${\cal
B}(B\to K_1(1270) \gamma), {\cal B}(B\to K_1(1400) \gamma), {\cal B}(\tau\to
K_1(1270) \nu_\tau)$, and ${\cal B}(\tau\to K_1(1420) \nu_\tau)$, gave $\theta
= (23^{+17}_{-23})^\circ$. (ii) Second, from the study of the ratio for
$f_1(1285) \to \phi\gamma$ and $f_1(1285) \to \rho^0\gamma$ branching
fractions, we have two-fold solution $\theta=(19.4^{+4.5}_{-4.6})^\circ$ or
$(51.1^{+4.5}_{-4.6})^\circ$. Combining these two analyses, we thus obtain
$\theta=(19.4^{+4.5}_{-4.6})^\circ$. We further compute the strange quark mass
and strange quark condensate from the analysis of the $f_1(1420)-f_1(1285)$
mass difference QCD sum rule, where the operator-product-expansion series is up
to dimension six and to ${\cal O}(\alpha_s^3, m_s^2 \alpha_s^2)$ accuracy.
Using the average of the recent lattice results and the $\theta$ value that we
have obtained as inputs, we get $/ =0.41 \pm 0.09$.Comment: 10 pages, 1 table, published versio

### Electron-Phonon Interactions for Optical Phonon Modes in Few-Layer Graphene

We present a first-principles study of the electron-phonon (e-ph)
interactions and their contributions to the linewidths for the optical phonon
modes at $\Gamma$ and K in one to three-layer graphene. It is found that due to
the interlayer coupling and the stacking geometry, the high-frequency optical
phonon modes in few-layer graphene couple with different valence and conduction
bands, giving rise to different e-ph interaction strengths for these modes.
Some of the multilayer optical modes derived from the $\Gamma$-$E_{2g}$ mode of
monolayer graphene exhibit slightly higher frequencies and much reduced
linewidths. In addition, the linewidths of K-$A'_1$ related modes in
multilayers depend on the stacking pattern and decrease with increasing layer
numbers.Comment: 6 pages,5 figures, submitted to PR

### Single particle momentum and angular distributions in hadron-hadron collisions at ultrahigh energies

The forward-backward charged multiplicity distribution (P n sub F, n sub B) of events in the 540 GeV antiproton-proton collider has been extensively studied by the UA5 Collaboration. It was pointed out that the distribution with respect to n = n sub F + n sub B satisfies approximate KNO scaling and that with respect to Z = n sub F - n sub B is binomial. The geometrical model of hadron-hadron collision interprets the large multiplicity fluctuation as due to the widely different nature of collisions at different impact parameters b. For a single impact parameter b, the collision in the geometrical model should exhibit stochastic behavior. This separation of the stochastic and nonstochastic (KNO) aspects of multiparticle production processes gives conceptually a lucid and attractive picture of such collisions, leading to the concept of partition temperature T sub p and the single particle momentum spectrum to be discussed in detail

### ATM optical contamination study - Reaction control system rocket engine space plume flow fields Interim report

Apollo telescopic experiment contamination by space vehicle exhaust product

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