2,298 research outputs found

    New Detectors to Explore the Lifetime Frontier

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    Long-lived particles (LLPs) are a common feature in many beyond the Standard Model theories, including supersymmetry, and are generically produced in exotic Higgs decays. Unfortunately, no existing or proposed search strategy will be able to observe the decay of non-hadronic electrically neutral LLPs with masses above \sim GeV and lifetimes near the limit set by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN), cτ107108c \tau \lesssim 10^7 - 10^8~m. We propose the MATHUSLA surface detector concept (MAssive Timing Hodoscope for Ultra Stable neutraL pArticles), which can be implemented with existing technology and in time for the high luminosity LHC upgrade to find such ultra-long-lived particles (ULLPs), whether produced in exotic Higgs decays or more general production modes. We also advocate for a dedicated LLP detector at a future 100 TeV collider, where a modestly sized underground design can discover ULLPs with lifetimes at the BBN limit produced in sub-percent level exotic Higgs decays.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figures. Added more detail to discussion of backgrounds. Various minor clarifications. Results and conclusions unchange

    LINKIN, a new transmembrane protein necessary for cell adhesion

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    In epithelial collective migration, leader and follower cells migrate while maintaining cell-cell adhesion and tissue polarity. We have identified a conserved protein and interactors required for maintaining cell adhesion during a simple collective migration in the developing C. elegans male gonad. LINKIN is a previously uncharacterized, transmembrane protein conserved throughout Metazoa. We identified seven atypical FG-GAP domains in the extracellular domain, which potentially folds into a β-propeller structure resembling the α-integrin ligand-binding domain. C. elegans LNKN-1 localizes to the plasma membrane of all gonadal cells, with apical and lateral bias. We identified the LINKIN interactors RUVBL1, RUVBL2, and α-tubulin by using SILAC mass spectrometry on human HEK 293T cells and testing candidates for lnkn-1-like function in C. elegans male gonad. We propose that LINKIN promotes adhesion between neighboring cells through its extracellular domain and regulates microtubule dynamics through RUVBL proteins at its intracellular domain

    The MATHUSLA Test Stand

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    The rate of muons from LHC pppp collisions reaching the surface above the ATLAS interaction point is measured and compared with expected rates from decays of WW and ZZ bosons and bb- and cc-quark jets. In addition, data collected during periods without beams circulating in the LHC provide a measurement of the background from cosmic ray inelastic backscattering that is compared to simulation predictions. Data were recorded during 2018 in a 2.5 ×\times 2.5 ×\times 6.5~m3\rm{m}^3 active volume MATHUSLA test stand detector unit consisting of two scintillator planes, one at the top and one at the bottom, which defined the trigger, and six layers of RPCs between them, grouped into three (x,y)(x,y)-measuring layers separated by 1.74 m from each other. Triggers selecting both upward-going tracks and downward-going tracks were used.Comment: 18 pages, 11 figures, 1 tabl

    pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and more advanced lung function impairment

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    Abstract Background Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) demonstrate a range of lung function impairment. However, the efficacy of antifibrotics compared with placebo has not been assessed in patients with more advanced disease. This post-hoc analysis investigated the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone versus placebo in patients with IPF and more advanced lung function impairment, defined as percent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC)  Methods Patients randomised to pirfenidone 2,403 mg/day or placebo in the ASCEND (NCT01366209) and CAPACITY (NCT00287716; NCT00287729) trials with more advanced baseline lung function impairment (pirfenidone, n = 90; placebo, n = 80) were included. Mortality, lung function, hospitalisation, exercise capacity and dyspnoea were investigated over 52 weeks. Results At Week 52 versus placebo, pirfenidone was associated with significantly lower risks of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09–0.86; p=0.0180), ≥10% absolute %FVC decline or all-cause mortality (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23–0.69; p=0.0006) and ≥10% absolute %FVC decline or respiratory-related hospitalisation or all-cause mortality (HR 0.46; 95% CI 0.28–0.76; p=0.0018). At Week 52, median treatment differences favouring pirfenidone were 36.7 m for 6-min walk distance and −8.0 points for the University of California—San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire total score. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) led to discontinuation in 14.4% and 21.3% of patients with pirfenidone and placebo, respectively. Conclusion Pirfenidone demonstrated clinically relevant benefits across multiple domains in patients with IPF and more advanced disease without an increased risk of discontinuation due to TEAEs. Clinical trials registration clinicaltrials. gov (ASCEND: NCT01366209; CAPACITY: NCT00287716; NCT00287729)

    Angiographically silent atherosclerosis detected by intravascular ultrasound in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia and familial combined hyperlipidemia: Correlation with high density lipoproteins

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    AbstractObjectives. This study sought to evaluate the extent of atherosclerosis in coronary and iliac arteries in patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or familial combined hyperlipidemia, using intravascular ultraound imaging.Background. Intravascular ultrasound imaging provides cross-sectional tomographic views of the vessel wall and allows quantitative assessment of atherosclerosis.Methods. Forty-eight nonsmoking, asymptomatic patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia or familial combined hyperlipidemia underwent intravascular ultrasound imaging of the left anterior descending coronary, left main coronary and common iliac arteries. Angiography showed only minimal or no narrowing in these vessels. Intravascular ultrasound images obtained during catheter pullback underwent morphometric analysis. Plaque burden was expressed as the mean and maximal intimal index (ratio of plaque area and area within the internal elastic lamina) and as the percent of vessel surface covered by plaque.Results. Intravascular ultrasound detected plaque more frequently than angiography in the left anterior descending (80% vs. 29%, respectively), left main (44% vs. 16%) and iliac arteries (33% vs. 27%). Plaque burden was higher in the left anterior descending (mean intimal index [±SD] 0.25 ± 0.16) than in the left main (0.11 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and iliac arteries (0.02 ± 0.04, p < 0.001). Angiography detected lumen narrowing only in coronary arteries with a maximal intimal index ⪰0.42 (left anterior descending artery) and ⪰0.43 (left main artery). The area within the internal elastic lamina increased with plaque area in the left anterior descending (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) and left main arteries (r = 0.53, p < 0.001). By stepwise multiple regression analysis, the strongest predictor for plaque burden in the left anterior descending artery was the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio for the left main artery.Conclusions. In patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and familial combined hyperlipidemia, extensive coronary plaque is present despite minimal or no angiographic changes. Compensatory vessel enlargement and diffuse involvement with eccentric plaque may account for the lack of angiographic changes. Levels of HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratio are far more powerful predictors of coronary plaque burden than are low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in these patients with early, asymptomatic disease

    Therapeutic targeting of integrin αvβ6 in breast cancer

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    BACKGROUND: Integrin ?v?6 promotes migration, invasion, and survival of cancer cells; however, the relevance and role of ?v?6 has yet to be elucidated in breast cancer.METHODS: Protein expression of integrin subunit beta6 (?6) was measured in breast cancers by immunohistochemistry (n &gt; 2000) and ITGB6 mRNA expression measured in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium dataset. Overall survival was assessed using Kaplan Meier curves, and bioinformatics statistical analyses were performed (Cox proportional hazards model, Wald test, and Chi-square test of association). Using antibody (264RAD) blockade and siRNA knockdown of ?6 in breast cell lines, the role of ?v?6 in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) biology (expression, proliferation, invasion, growth in vivo) was assessed by flow cytometry, MTT, Transwell invasion, proximity ligation assay, and xenografts (n ? 3), respectively. A student's t-test was used for two variables; three-plus variables used one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test. Xenograft growth was analyzed using linear mixed model analysis, followed by Wald testing and survival, analyzed using the Log-Rank test. All statistical tests were two sided.RESULTS: High expression of either the mRNA or protein for the integrin subunit ?6 was associated with very poor survival (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.15, P = .002) and increased metastases to distant sites. Co-expression of ?6 and HER2 was associated with worse prognosis (HR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.16 to 3.35, P = .01). Monotherapy with 264RAD or trastuzumab slowed growth of MCF-7/HER2-18 and BT-474 xenografts similarly (P &lt; .001), but combining 264RAD with trastuzumab effectively stopped tumor growth, even in trastuzumab-resistant MCF-7/HER2-18 xenografts.CONCLUSIONS: Targeting ?v?6 with 264RAD alone or in combination with trastuzumab may provide a novel therapy for treating high-risk and trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer patients.<br/

    The impact of electronic records on patient safety : a qualitative study

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    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore NHS staff perceptions and experiences of the impact on patient safety of introducing a maternity system. METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 members of NHS staff who represented a variety of staff groups (doctors, midwives, health care assistants), staff grades (consultant and midwife grades) and wards within a maternity unit. Participants represented a single maternity unit at a NHS teaching hospital in the North of England. Interviews were conducted during the first 12 months of the system being implemented and were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Participants perceived there to be an elevated risk to patient safety during the system's implementation. The perceived risks were attributed to a range of social and technical factors. For example, poor system design and human error which resulted in an increased potential for missing information and inputting error. CONCLUSIONS: The first 12 months of introducing the maternity system was perceived to and in some cases had already caused actual risk to patient safety. Trusts throughout the NHS are facing increasing pressure to become paperless and should be aware of the potential adverse impacts on patient safety that can occur when introducing electronic systems. Given the potential for increased risk identified, recommendations for further research and for NHS trusts introducing electronic systems are proposed

    Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) for the Subaru Telescope: Overview, recent progress, and future perspectives

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    PFS (Prime Focus Spectrograph), a next generation facility instrument on the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope, is a very wide-field, massively multiplexed, optical and near-infrared spectrograph. Exploiting the Subaru prime focus, 2394 reconfigurable fibers will be distributed over the 1.3 deg field of view. The spectrograph has been designed with 3 arms of blue, red, and near-infrared cameras to simultaneously observe spectra from 380nm to 1260nm in one exposure at a resolution of ~1.6-2.7A. An international collaboration is developing this instrument under the initiative of Kavli IPMU. The project is now going into the construction phase aiming at undertaking system integration in 2017-2018 and subsequently carrying out engineering operations in 2018-2019. This article gives an overview of the instrument, current project status and future paths forward.Comment: 17 pages, 10 figures. Proceeding of SPIE Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation 201
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