82 research outputs found

    Slice-selective NMR:a non-invasive method for the analysis of separated pyrolysis fuel samples

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    Pyrolysis oil has been identified as a possible alternative fuel source, however widespread use is hindered by high acidity and water content. These negative characteristics can be mitigated by blending with, for example, biodiesel, marine gas oil and butanol. These blended samples can be unstable and often separate into two distinct phases. NMR spectroscopy is a well-established spectroscopic technique that is finding increasing application in the analysis of pyrolysis oil and blended fuels derived from it. Here, slice-selective NMR, where the NMR spectrum of only a thin slice of the total sample is acquired, is used to study, non-invasively, how the constituent components of blended biofuel samples are partitioned between the two layers. Understanding the outcome of the phase separation is an important step towards understanding why the blended oil samples separate, and may provide answers to mitigating and eventually solving the problem. The NMR method was successfully used to analyse a number of separated biofuel samples - typically separated into an oil layer, containing marine gas oil and biodiesel, above a bio-oil layer with a high water and butanol content

    A techno-economic analysis of energy recovery from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) by an integrated intermediate pyrolysis and combined heat and power (CHP) plant

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    The increasing environmental concerns and the significant growth of the waste to energy market calls for innovative and flexible technology that can effectively process and convert municipal solid waste into fuels and power at high efficiencies. To ensure the technical and economic feasibility of new technology, a sound understanding of the characteristics of the integrated energy system is essential. In this work, a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of a waste to power and heat plant based on integrated intermediate pyrolysis and CHP (Pyro-CHP) system was performed. The overall plant CHP efficiency was found to be nearly 60% defined as heat and power output compared to feedstock fuel input. By using an established economic evaluation model, the capital investment of a 5 tonne per hour plant was calculated to be 拢27.64 million and the Levelised Cost of Electricity was 拢0.063/kWh. This agrees the range of cost given by the UK government. To maximise project viability, technology developers should endeavour to seek ways to reduce the energy production cost. Particular attention should be given to the factors with the greatest influence on the profitability, such as feedstock cost (or gate fee for waste), maintaining plant availability, improving energy productivity and reducing capital cost

    Quantitative Low-Field 19F NMR Analysis of Carbonyl Groups in Pyrolysis Oils

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    Pyrolysis bio-oils, one of the products of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis, have the potential to be widely used as fuels. The chemical composition of bio-oils is very complicated as they contain hundreds, if not thousands, of different, mostly oxygen-containing, compounds with a wide distribution of physical properties, chemical structures, and concentrations. Detailed knowledge of bio-oil composition is crucial for optimizing both the pyrolysis processes and for any subsequent upgrading into a more viable fuel resource. Here we report the successful use of low-field, or benchtop, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers in the analysis of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils from four different feedstocks were derivatized and analyzed using 19F NMR techniques. The NMR results compare favorably with titrations for total carbonyl content. In addition, the benchtop NMR spectrometer proves able to reveal key spectral features, thus allowing the quantification of different carbonyl groups, such as aldehydes, ketones and quinones. Benchtop NMR spectrometers are typically compact, cheaper than their superconducting counterparts and do not require cryogens. Their use will make NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils easier and more accessible to a wide range of different potential users

    Noninterventional statistical comparison of BTS and CHEST guidelines for size and severity in primary pneumothorax.

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    Hilar rather than apical interpleural distance more accurately predicts need for intercostal chest drain insertion http://ow.ly/JvKFYThe study was funded by the East Anglian Thoracic Society. M.Z. Nikoli膰 is a Wellcome Trust PhD Programme for Clinicians Fellow at the University of Cambridge. S.J. Marciniak is a Medical Research Council Senior Clinical Fellow. J. Wason is funded by the Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre. Funding information for this article has been deposited with FundRef.This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from the European Respiratory Society via http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.0011861

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25路4% (95% CI 19路1-31路8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7路8%, 4路8-10路7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27路2%, 17路6-36路8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33路0%, 18路3-47路6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6路6%, 1路8-11路3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33路1%, 11路1-55路1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24路3%, 16路1-32路6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Sustainability of bioenergy 鈥 mapping the risks and benefits to inform future bioenergy systems

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    Bioenergy is widely included in energy strategies for its GHG mitigation potential. Bioenergy technologies will likely have to be deployed at scale to meet decarbonisation targets, and consequently biomass will have to be increasingly grown/mobilised. Sustainability risks associated with bioenergy may intensify with increasing deployment and where feedstocks are sourced through international trade. This research applies the Bioeconomy Sustainability Indicator Model (BSIM) to map and analyse the performance of bioenergy across 126 sustainability issues, evaluating 16 bioenergy case studies that reflect the breadth of biomass resources, technologies, energy vectors and bio-products. The research finds common trends in sustainability performance across projects that can inform bioenergy policy and decision making. Potential sustainability benefits are identified for People (jobs, skills, income, energy access); for Development (economy, energy, land utilisation); for Natural Systems (soil, heavy metals), and; for Climate Change (emissions, fuels). Also, consistent trends of sustainability risks where focus is required to ensure the viability of bioenergy projects, including for infrastructure, feedstock mobilisation, techno-economics and carbon stocks. Emission mitigation may be a primary objective for bioenergy, this research finds bioenergy projects can provide potential benefits far beyond emissions - there is an argument for supporting projects based on the ecosystem services and/or economic stimulation they may deliver. Also given the broad dynamics and characteristics of bioenergy projects, a rigid approach of assessing sustainability may be incompatible. Awarding 鈥榗redit鈥 across a broader range of sustainability indicators in addition to requiring minimum performances in key areas, may be more effective at ensuring bioenergy sustainability

    Real-world experience of nintedanib for progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease in the UK

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    Background Nintedanib slows progression of lung function decline in patients with progressive fibrosing (PF) interstitial lung disease (ILD) and was recommended for this indication within the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service in Scotland in June 2021 and in England, Wales and Northern Ireland in November 2021. To date, there has been no national evaluation of the use of nintedanib for PF-ILD in a real-world setting.Methods 26 UK centres were invited to take part in a national service evaluation between 17 November 2021 and 30 September 2022. Summary data regarding underlying diagnosis, pulmonary function tests, diagnostic criteria, radiological appearance, concurrent immunosuppressive therapy and drug tolerability were collected via electronic survey.Results 24 UK prescribing centres responded to the service evaluation invitation. Between 17 November 2021 and 30 September 2022, 1120 patients received a multidisciplinary team recommendation to commence nintedanib for PF-ILD. The most common underlying diagnoses were hypersensitivity pneumonitis (298 out of 1120, 26.6%), connective tissue disease associated ILD (197 out of 1120, 17.6%), rheumatoid arthritis associated ILD (180 out of 1120, 16.0%), idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (125 out of 1120, 11.1%) and unclassifiable ILD (100 out of 1120, 8.9%). Of these, 54.4% (609 out of 1120) were receiving concomitant corticosteroids, 355 (31.7%) out of 1120 were receiving concomitant mycophenolate mofetil and 340 (30.3%) out of 1120 were receiving another immunosuppressive/modulatory therapy. Radiological progression of ILD combined with worsening respiratory symptoms was the most common reason for the diagnosis of PF-ILD.Conclusion We have demonstrated the use of nintedanib for the treatment of PF-ILD across a broad range of underlying conditions. Nintedanib is frequently co-prescribed alongside immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapy. The use of nintedanib for the treatment of PF-ILD has demonstrated acceptable tolerability in a real-world setting

    Genetic correlation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and schizophrenia

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    A. Palotie on ty枚ryhm盲n Schizophrenia Working Grp Psychiat j盲sen.We have previously shown higher-than-expected rates of schizophrenia in relatives of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting an aetiological relationship between the diseases. Here, we investigate the genetic relationship between ALS and schizophrenia using genome-wide association study data from over 100,000 unique individuals. Using linkage disequilibrium score regression, we estimate the genetic correlation between ALS and schizophrenia to be 14.3% (7.05-21.6; P = 1 x 10(-4)) with schizophrenia polygenic risk scores explaining up to 0.12% of the variance in ALS (P = 8.4 x 10(-7)). A modest increase in comorbidity of ALS and schizophrenia is expected given these findings (odds ratio 1.08-1.26) but this would require very large studies to observe epidemiologically. We identify five potential novel ALS-associated loci using conditional false discovery rate analysis. It is likely that shared neurobiological mechanisms between these two disorders will engender novel hypotheses in future preclinical and clinical studies.Peer reviewe

    Psychosocial impact of undergoing prostate cancer screening for men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

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    OBJECTIVES: To report the baseline results of a longitudinal psychosocial study that forms part of the IMPACT study, a multi-national investigation of targeted prostate cancer (PCa) screening among men with a known pathogenic germline mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. PARTICPANTS AND METHODS: Men enrolled in the IMPACT study were invited to complete a questionnaire at collaborating sites prior to each annual screening visit. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and the following measures: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer, Cancer Worry Scale-Revised, risk perception and knowledge. The results of the baseline questionnaire are presented. RESULTS: A total of 432 men completed questionnaires: 98 and 160 had mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, respectively, and 174 were controls (familial mutation negative). Participants' perception of PCa risk was influenced by genetic status. Knowledge levels were high and unrelated to genetic status. Mean scores for the HADS and SF-36 were within reported general population norms and mean IES scores were within normal range. IES mean intrusion and avoidance scores were significantly higher in BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers than in controls and were higher in men with increased PCa risk perception. At the multivariate level, risk perception contributed more significantly to variance in IES scores than genetic status. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report the psychosocial profile of men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations undergoing PCa screening. No clinically concerning levels of general or cancer-specific distress or poor quality of life were detected in the cohort as a whole. A small subset of participants reported higher levels of distress, suggesting the need for healthcare professionals offering PCa screening to identify these risk factors and offer additional information and support to men seeking PCa screening
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