3,269 research outputs found

    Retrieval of at-sensor irradiance using Incident Light Sensor (ILS)

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    A number of aircraft sensors have the facility to measure spectral downwelling irradiance using a sensor mounted on the roof of the aircraft, but these data are rarely used for atmospheric correction. Part of the problem is that the attitude of the airborne platform is always changing during flight, even in stable conditions, so that direct use of data from an incident light sensor (ILS) can introduce errors into atmospheric correction methods. The continual motion of the ILS is used here to advantage, as a means to fit a sky radiance distribution model developed by Brunger and Hooper (1993) to data from the Itres Instruments CASI ILS. The inclination of the ILS sensor, due to changing aircraft attitude, is considered as the slope plane in the model. The selected model coefficients correspond to parameterised atmospheric conditions, i.e. clearness index and diffuse ratio. The ILS data corrected by the model are wellmatched to variations of irradiance measured at ground level during three flights. The radiance distribution at sensor level is also calculated by the model, and shows the characteristics of the sky conditions at the time of each flight

    A model-based approach to correcting spectral irradiance data using an upward-looking airborne sensor (CASI ILS)

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    A number of aircraft sensors have the facility to measure spectral downwelling irradiance using a sensor mounted on the roof of the aircraft, but these data are rarely used for atmospheric correction. Part of the problem is that the attitude of the airborne platform is always changing during flight, even in stable conditions, so that direct use of data from an incident light sensor (ILS) can introduce errors into atmospheric correction methods. The continual motion of the ILS is used here to advantage, as a means to fit a sky radiance distribution model developed by Brunger and Hooper (1993) to data from the Itres Instruments CASI ILS. The inclination of the ILS sensor, due to changing aircraft attitude, is considered as the slope plane in the model. The selected model coefficients correspond to parameterised atmospheric conditions and represent atmospheric transmission and the proportion of direct:diffuse flux. The method was used to correct CASI ILS data acquired over a site in southern England. Comparison with spectral irradiance measured simultaneously on the ground shows that the method reduced the variability of the ILS data and also compensated for the effect of different flight directions. The sky radiance distribution at sensor level is also calculated by the model, and shows the characteristics of the sky conditions at the time of each flight

    Non-thermal WIMP baryogenesis

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    We propose a WIMP baryogensis achieved by the annihilation of non-thermally produced WIMPs from decay of heavy particles, which can result in low reheating temerature. Dark matter (DM) can be produced non-thermally during a reheating period created by the decay of long-lived heavy particle, and subsequently re-annihilate to lighter particles even after the thermal freeze-out. The re-annihilation of DM provides the observed baryon asymmetry as well as the correct relic density of DM. We investigate how wahout effects can affect the generation of the baryon asymmetry and study a model suppressing them. In this scenario, we find that DM can be heavy enough and its annihilation cross section can also be larger than that adopted in the usual thermal WIMP baryogenesis.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figure

    Probing the messenger of supersymmetry breaking by the muon anomalous magnetic moment

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    Motivated by the recently measured muon's anomalous magnetic moment aμa_{\mu}, we examine the supersymmetry contribution to aμa_{\mu} in various mediation models of supersymmetry breaking which lead to predictive flavor conserving soft parameters at high energy scale. The studied models include dilaton/modulus-mediated models in heterotic string/MM theory, gauge-mediated model, no-scale or gaugino-mediated model, and also the minimal and deflected anomaly-mediated models. For each model, the range of aμSUSYa^{SUSY}_{\mu} allowed by other experimental constraints, e.g. b --> s\gamma and the collider bounds on superparticle masses, is obtained together with the corresponding parameter region of the model. Gauge-mediated models with low messenger scale can give any aμSUSYa^{SUSY}_{\mu} within the 2σ2\sigma bound. In many other models, b --> s\gamma favors aμSUSYa^{SUSY}_{\mu} smaller than either the 1σ-1\sigma value (26×101026\times 10^{-10}) or the central value (42×101042\times 10^{-10}).Comment: RevTeX, 29 pages, 14 eps figures, figure for deflected anomaly mediation is corrected, reference adde

    Gas-Filled Phospholipid Nanoparticles Conjugated with Gadolinium Play a Role as a Potential Theragnostics for MR-Guided HIFU Ablation

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    To develop a long-circulating theragnostics, meaning therapeutics and diagnostics for MR-guided HIFU ablation, we designed and prepared Gd-C5F12-phospholipid nanobubbles (PLNs) 30–100 nm in diameter. The biochemical and physical characterization of Gd-C5F12-PLNs were performed. Since Gd-C5F12-PLN-50 (Φ = 50 nm) and Gd-C5F12-PLN-100 (Φ = 100 nm) enhanced the hyperthermal effect of HIFU size- and concentration-dependently in a tissue-mimicking phantom, its circulation, distribution, tumor accumulation and tumor ablation were examined in tumor-bearing mice. The plasma-half life of Gd-C5F12-PLNs was longer than 1.5 hrs. Gd-C5F12-PLNs mainly accumulated in the liver and the spleen, suggesting that they are slowly secreted through the hepatobiliary pathway. Monitored by the T1 signal intensity of MR, Gd-C5F12-PLNs accumulated in tumor tissues for 8 hours in mice. HIFU with Gd-C5F12-PLN-100 showed the increased tumor ablation area as compared with HIFU alone. The results suggest that Gd-C5F12-PLNs exhibit a potential theragnostics for MR-guided HIFU ablation
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