1,074 research outputs found

    A squirmer across Reynolds numbers

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    The self-propulsion of a spherical squirmer – a model swimming organism that achieves locomotion via steady tangential movement of its surface – is quantified across the transition from viscously to inertially dominated flow. Specifically, the flow around a squirmer is computed for Reynolds numbers (ReRe) between 0.01 and 1000 by numerical solution of the Navier–Stokes equations. A squirmer with a fixed swimming stroke and fixed swimming direction is considered. We find that fluid inertia leads to profound differences in the locomotion of pusher (propelled from the rear) versus puller (propelled from the front) squirmers. Specifically, pushers have a swimming speed that increases monotonically with ReRe, and efficient convection of vorticity past their surface leads to steady axisymmetric flow that remains stable up to at least Re=1000Re=1000. In contrast, pullers have a swimming speed that is non-monotonic with ReRe. Moreover, they trap vorticity within their wake, which leads to flow instabilities that cause a decrease in the time-averaged swimming speed at large ReRe. The power expenditure and swimming efficiency are also computed. We show that pushers are more efficient at large ReRe, mainly because the flow around them can remain stable to much greater ReRe than is the case for pullers. Interestingly, if unstable axisymmetric flows at large ReRe are considered, pullers are more efficient due to the development of a Hill’s vortex-like wake structure.This work was funded in part by the European Union through a CIG grant to EL. NGC acknowledges partial support from the John and Claire Bertucci Fellowship in Engineering.This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Cambridge University Press

    Advantageous grain boundaries in iron pnictide superconductors

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    High critical temperature superconductors have zero power consumption and could be used to produce ideal electric power lines. The principal obstacle in fabricating superconducting wires and tapes is grain boundaries-the misalignment of crystalline orientations at grain boundaries, which is unavoidable for polycrystals, largely deteriorates critical current density. Here, we report that High critical temperature iron pnictide superconductors have advantages over cuprates with respect to these grain boundary issues. The transport properties through well-defined bicrystal grain boundary junctions with various misorientation angles (thetaGB) were systematically investigated for cobalt-doped BaFe2As2 (BaFe2As2:Co) epitaxial films fabricated on bicrystal substrates. The critical current density through bicrystal grain boundary (JcBGB) remained high (> 1 MA/cm2) and nearly constant up to a critical angle thetac of ~9o, which is substantially larger than the thetac of ~5o for YBCO. Even at thetaGB > thetac, the decay of JcBGB was much smaller than that of YBCO.Comment: to appear in Nature Communication

    Influences of salinity on the physiology and distribution of the Arctic coralline algae, Lithothamnion glaciale (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)

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    In Greenland, free-living red coralline algae contribute to and dominate marine habitats along the coastline. Lithothamnion glaciale dominates coralline algae beds in many regions of the Arctic, but never in Godthåbsfjord, Greenland, where Clathromorphum sp. is dominant. To investigate environmental impacts on coralline algae distribution, calcification and primary productivity were measured in situ during summers of 2015 and 2016, and annual patterns of productivity in L. glaciale were monitored in laboratory-based mesocosm experiments where temperature and salinity were manipulated to mimic high glacial melt. The results of field and cold-room measurements indicate that both L. glaciale and Clathromorphum sp. had low calcification and photosynthetic rates during the Greenland summer (2015 and 2016), with maximum of 1.225 ± 0.17 or 0.002 ± 0.023 μmol CaCO3 · g-1 · h-1 and -0.007 ±0.003 or -0.004 ± 0.001 mg O2 · L-1 · h-1 in each species respectively. Mesocosm experiments indicate L. glaciale is a seasonal responder; photosynthetic and calcification rates increase with annual light cycles. Furthermore, metabolic processes in L. glaciale were negatively influenced by low salinity; positive growth rates only occurred in marine treatments where individuals accumulated an average of 1.85 ± 1.73 mg · d-1 of biomass through summer. These results indicate high freshwater input to the Godthåbsfjord region may drive the low abundance of L. glaciale, and could decrease species distribution as climate change increases freshwater input to the Arctic marine system via enhanced ice sheet runoff and glacier calving.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    Engaging with community researchers for exposure science: lessons learned from a pesticide biomonitoring study

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    A major challenge in biomonitoring studies with members of the general public is ensuring their continued involvement throughout the necessary length of the research. The paper presents evidence on the use of community researchers, recruited from local study areas, as a mechanism for ensuring effective recruitment and retention of farmer and resident participants for a pesticides biomonitoring study. The evidence presented suggests that community researchers' abilities to build and sustain trusting relationships with participants enhanced the rigour of the study as a result of their on-the-ground responsiveness and flexibility resulting in data collection beyond targets expected

    Hospitalized poisonings after renal transplantation in the United States

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    BACKGROUND: The national incidence of and risk factors for hospitalized poisonings in renal transplant recipients has not been reported. METHODS: Historical cohort study of 39,628 renal transplant recipients in the United States Renal Data System between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998. Associations with time to hospitalizations for a primary diagnosis of poisonings (ICD-9 codes 960.x-989.x) within three years after renal transplant were assessed by Cox Regression. RESULTS: The incidence of hospitalized poisonings was 2.3 patients per 1000 person years. The most frequent causes of poisonings were immunosuppressive agents (25.3%), analgesics/antipyretics (14.1%), psychotropic agents (10.0%), and insulin/antidiabetic agents (7.1%). In Cox Regression analysis, low body mass index (BMI, <21.6 vs. >28.3 kg/m(2), adjusted hazard ratio (AHR), 3.02, 95% CI, 1.45–6.28, and allograft rejection, AHR 1.83, 95% CI, 1.15–2.89, were the only factors independently associated with hospitalized poisonings. Hospitalized poisonings were independently associated with increased mortality (AHR, 1.54, 95% CI 1.22–1.92, p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized poisonings were associated with increased mortality after renal transplantation. However, almost all reported poisonings in renal transplant recipients were due to the use of prescribed medications. Allograft rejection and low BMI were the only independent risk factors for poisonings identified in this population

    Responses of marine benthic microalgae to elevated CO<inf>2</inf>

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    Increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are causing a rise in pCO2 concentrations in the ocean surface and lowering pH. To predict the effects of these changes, we need to improve our understanding of the responses of marine primary producers since these drive biogeochemical cycles and profoundly affect the structure and function of benthic habitats. The effects of increasing CO2 levels on the colonisation of artificial substrata by microalgal assemblages (periphyton) were examined across a CO2 gradient off the volcanic island of Vulcano (NE Sicily). We show that periphyton communities altered significantly as CO2 concentrations increased. CO2 enrichment caused significant increases in chlorophyll a concentrations and in diatom abundance although we did not detect any changes in cyanobacteria. SEM analysis revealed major shifts in diatom assemblage composition as CO2 levels increased. The responses of benthic microalgae to rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions are likely to have significant ecological ramifications for coastal systems. © 2011 Springer-Verlag

    Tamarindus indica Extract Alters Release of Alpha Enolase, Apolipoprotein A-I, Transthyretin and Rab GDP Dissociation Inhibitor Beta from HepG2 Cells

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    Background: The plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol lowering effects of Tamarindus indica extract have been previously described. We have also shown that the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the expression of lipid-associated genes including ABCG5 and APOAI in HepG2 cells. In the present study, effects of the same extract on the release of proteins from the cells were investigated using the proteomics approach. Methodology/Principal Findings: When culture media of HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp were subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the expression of seven proteins was found to be significantly different (p<0.03125). Five of the spots were subsequently identified as alpha enolase (ENO1), transthyretin (TTR), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I; two isoforms), and rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDI-2). A functional network of lipid metabolism, molecular transport and small molecule biochemistry that interconnects the three latter proteins with the interactomes was identified using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Conclusion/Significance: The methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the release of ENO1, ApoA-I, TTR and GDI-2 from HepG2 cells. Our results provide support on the effect of T. indica extract on cellular lipid metabolism, particularly that of cholesterol

    Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-initiated botulinum toxin treatment model for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    Background Blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm are debilitating conditions that significantly impact on patient quality of life. Cyclical treatment with botulinum toxin injections offers temporary relief, but the duration of treatment efficacy is variable. The standard model of patient care defines routine fixed-time based scheduled treatment cycles which may lead to unnecessarily frequent treatment for some patients and experience of distressing symptoms in others, if symptoms return before the scheduled follow-up period. Methods/Design A randomised controlled trial will compare a patient-initiated model of care, where patients determine botulinum toxin treatment timing, to the standard model of care in which care is scheduled by the clinical team. A sample of 266 patients with blepharospasm or hemifacial spasm will be recruited from Moorfields Eye Hospital (MEH), London. The trial will be accompanied by a mixed methods evaluation of acceptability of the new service. Patients who meet eligibility criteria will be assessed at baseline and those in the intervention group will be provided instructions on how to book their own treatment appointments. Patients in both groups will be followed up 3 and 9 months into the trial and all patients will be returned to usual care after 9 months to meet safety protocols. Primary outcome measures include disease severity (questionnaire), functional disability (questionnaire) and patient satisfaction with care (questionnaire). Secondary outcomes include disease-specific quality of life (questionnaire), mood (questionnaire), illness and treatment perceptions (questionnaire and semi-structured interviews), economic impact (questionnaire) and acceptability (questionnaire and semi-structured interviews). Discussion This trial will assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a patient-led care model for botulinum toxin therapy. If the new model is shown to be effective in reducing distress and disability in these populations and is found to be acceptable to patients, whilst being cost-effective, this will have significant implications for service organisation across the NHS. Trial registration UK Clinical Research Network (UKCRN) Portfolio 18660. Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT102577224 (registered 29th October 2015

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at √ s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses 20.3 fb−1 of √ s = 8 TeV data collected in 2012 with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events are required to have at least one jet with pT > 120 GeV and no leptons. Nine signal regions are considered with increasing missing transverse momentum requirements between Emiss T > 150 GeV and Emiss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model expectations. The results are translated into exclusion limits on models with either large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark matter candidates, or production of very light gravitinos in a gauge-mediated supersymmetric model. In addition, limits on the production of an invisibly decaying Higgs-like boson leading to similar topologies in the final state are presente

    Search for pair-produced long-lived neutral particles decaying to jets in the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter in ppcollisions at √s=8TeV