655 research outputs found

    Material Budget Calculation of the new Inner Tracking System, ALICE

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    The ALICE Collaboration aims at studying the physics of strongly interacting matter by building up a dedicated heavy-ion detector. The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is located in the heart of the ALICE Detector surrounding the interaction point. Now, ALICE has a plan to upgrade the inner tracking system for rare probes at low transverse momentum. The new ITS composes of seven layers of silicon pixel sensor on the supporting structure. One goal of the new design is to reduce the material budget (X/X0X/X_0) per layer to 0.3%\% for inner layers and 0.8%\% for middle and outer layers. In this work, we perform the calculations based on detailed geometry descriptions of different supporting structures for inner and outer barrel using ALIROOT. Our results show that it is possible to reduce the material budget of the inner and outer barrel to the value that we have expected. The manufacturing of such prototypes are also possible.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, regular pape


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    SUT1-105-48-36-10 การศึกษาอะตอมของปฏิยานภาคโปรตรอนโดยวิธีทางฟังก์ชันสเตอร์เมียน SUT1-105-48-36-11 การศึกษาอะตอมพายออนิกโดยวิธีทางฟังก์ชันสเตอร์เมียน SUT1-105-48-36-12 การศึกษาพายออเนียมโดยวิธีทางฟังก์ชันสเตอร์เมียนThis work was supported by Suranaree University of Technology in fiscal year 2005-200

    Towards a statistical mechanics of nonabelian vortices

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    A study is presented of classical field configurations describing nonabelian vortices in two spatial dimensions, when a global SO(3) SO(3) symmetry is spontaneously broken to a discrete group \IK isomorphic to the group of integers mod 4. The vortices in this model are characterized by the nonabelian fundamental group \pi_1 (SO(3)/{\IK}) , which is isomorphic to the group of quaternions. We present an ansatz describing isolated vortices and prove that it is stable to perturbations. Kinematic constraints are derived which imply that at a finite temperature, only two species of vortices are stable to decay, due to `dissociation'. The latter process is the nonabelian analogue of the instability of charge q>1|q| >1 abelian vortices to dissociation into those with charge q=1|q| = 1. The energy of configurations containing at maximum two vortex-antivortex pairs, is then computed. When the pairs are all of the same type, we find the usual Coulombic interaction energy as in the abelian case. When they are different, one finds novel interactions which are a departure from Coulomb like behavior. Therefore one can compute the grand canonical partition function (GCPF) for thermal pair creation of nonabelian vortices, in the approximation where the fugacities for vortices of each type are small. It is found that the vortex fugacities depend on a real continuous parameter a a which characterize the degeneracy of the vacuum. Depending on the relative sizes of these fugacities, the vortex gas will be dominated by one of either of the two types mentioned above. In these regimes, we expect the standard Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transitions to occur, as in systems of abelian vortices in 2-dimensions. Between these two regimes, the gas contains pairs of both types, so nonabelian effects will be important.Comment: 40 pages in a4 LaTeX including 2 tables and 5 uuencoded Postscript figures, QMW-93/15.( The 6th figure, due to its size, is available by directly request from [email protected]. Some typos are corrected and the choice of choosing \r_c has been argued.

    Uncertainty-aware spot rejection rate as quality metric for proton therapy using a digital tracking calorimeter

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    Objective. Proton therapy is highly sensitive to range uncertainties due to the nature of the dose deposition of charged particles. To ensure treatment quality, range verification methods can be used to verify that the individual spots in a pencil beam scanning treatment fraction match the treatment plan. This study introduces a novel metric for proton therapy quality control based on uncertainties in range verification of individual spots. Approach. We employ uncertainty-aware deep neural networks to predict the Bragg peak depth in an anthropomorphic phantom based on secondary charged particle detection in a silicon pixel telescope designed for proton computed tomography. The subsequently predicted Bragg peak positions, along with their uncertainties, are compared to the treatment plan, rejecting spots which are predicted to be outside the 95% confidence interval. The such-produced spot rejection rate presents a metric for the quality of the treatment fraction. Main results. The introduced spot rejection rate metric is shown to be well-defined for range predictors with well-calibrated uncertainties. Using this method, treatment errors in the form of lateral shifts can be detected down to 1 mm after around 1400 treated spots with spot intensities of 1 × 107 protons. The range verification model used in this metric predicts the Bragg peak depth to a mean absolute error of 1.107 ± 0.015 mm. Significance. Uncertainty-aware machine learning has potential applications in proton therapy quality control. This work presents the foundation for future developments in this area.publishedVersio

    Azimuthal anisotropy of charged jet production in root s(NN)=2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions

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    We present measurements of the azimuthal dependence of charged jet production in central and semi-central root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions with respect to the second harmonic event plane, quantified as nu(ch)(2) (jet). Jet finding is performed employing the anti-k(T) algorithm with a resolution parameter R = 0.2 using charged tracks from the ALICE tracking system. The contribution of the azimuthal anisotropy of the underlying event is taken into account event-by-event. The remaining (statistical) region-to-region fluctuations are removed on an ensemble basis by unfolding the jet spectra for different event plane orientations independently. Significant non-zero nu(ch)(2) (jet) is observed in semi-central collisions (30-50% centrality) for 20 <p(T)(ch) (jet) <90 GeV/c. The azimuthal dependence of the charged jet production is similar to the dependence observed for jets comprising both charged and neutral fragments, and compatible with measurements of the nu(2) of single charged particles at high p(T). Good agreement between the data and predictions from JEWEL, an event generator simulating parton shower evolution in the presence of a dense QCD medium, is found in semi-central collisions. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).Peer reviewe

    Production of He-4 and (4) in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S=2.76 TeV at the LHC

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    Results on the production of He-4 and (4) nuclei in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 2.76 TeV in the rapidity range vertical bar y vertical bar <1, using the ALICE detector, are presented in this paper. The rapidity densities corresponding to 0-10% central events are found to be dN/dy4(He) = (0.8 +/- 0.4 (stat) +/- 0.3 (syst)) x 10(-6) and dN/dy4 = (1.1 +/- 0.4 (stat) +/- 0.2 (syst)) x 10(-6), respectively. This is in agreement with the statistical thermal model expectation assuming the same chemical freeze-out temperature (T-chem = 156 MeV) as for light hadrons. The measured ratio of (4)/He-4 is 1.4 +/- 0.8 (stat) +/- 0.5 (syst). (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.Peer reviewe