85 research outputs found

    Granular material development applied in an experimental section for civil engineering purposes

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    In this study, a granular material (GM) derived from wastes generated in waste-to-energy plants was developed. Weathered bottom ash (WBA) and air pollution control (APC) ashes obtained from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) were used as raw materials. A mortar (M) with 50 wt. % of APC and 50 wt. % of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) CEM-I was prepared. The GM formulation was 20 wt. % M and 80 wt. % WBA. At the laboratory scale, WBA, APC, M, and crushed GM were evaluated by means of dynamic leaching (EN 12457-4) tests, and WBA, M, and crushed GM by percolation column (CEN/TS 16637) tests. The metal(loid)s analyzed were below the non-hazardous limits, regarding the requirement of the metal(loid)s released for waste revalorization. In order to simulate a road subbase real scenario, the crushed GM was tested in an experimental section (10 × 20 × 0.2 m). During a 600-day period, the leachates generated by the percolation of rainwater were collected. This research shows outstanding results regarding the metal(loid)s released for both the 'accumulated' and 'punctual' leachates collected. An accomplishment in the immobilization of metal(loid)s from APC residues was achieved because of the encapsulation effect of the cement. The GM formulation from both MSWI wastes can be considered an environmentally safe procedure for revalorizing APC residues

    Stabilization study of a contaminated soil with metal(loid)s adding different low-grade MgO degrees

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    Low-grade magnesium oxide (LG-MgO) was proposed as ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or lime substitute (CaO) for metal(loid)s remediation in contaminated soils. Some metal(loid)s precipitate at pH ≈ 9 in insoluble hydroxide form thus avoiding their leaching. LG-MgO avoids the re-dissolution of certain metal(loid)s at 9.0 < pH < 11.0 (pH-dependents), whose solubility depends on the pH. A highly contaminated soil with heavy metal(loid)s was stabilized using different LG-MgO by-products sources as stabilizing agents. Two of the three studied LG-MgOs were selected for the stabilization, by mixing 5, 10, and 15 wt.%. The effect of using LG-MgO not only depends on the size of the particles, but also on those impurities that are present in the LG-MgO samples. Particle size distribution, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, citric acid test, specific surface, bulk density, acid neutralization capacity, batch leaching tests (BLTs), and percolation column tests (PCTs) were techniques used to deeply characterize the different LG-MgO and the contaminated and remediated soils. The remediation's results efficacy indicated that when the medium pH was between 9.0 and 11.0, the concentration of pH-dependent metal(loid)s decreases significantly. Although around 15 wt.% of a stabilizing agent was appropriate for the soil remediation to ensure an alkali reservoir that maintains optimal stabilization conditions for a long period, 5 wt.% of LG-MgO was enough to remedy the contaminated soil. When evaluating a polluted and decontaminated soil, both BLTs and PCTs should be complementary procedures

    Sustainable asphalt mixtures by partial replacement of fine aggregates with low-grade magnesium carbonate by-product

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    The utilisation of large quantities of raw materials for asphalt mixtures manufacturing, such as aggregates, is an environmental issue that must be addressed. This concern has led to valorising waste and by-products as more sustainable alternative raw materials. This research is aimed at evaluating the use of a low-grade magnesium carbonate (LG-MC) by-product as a partial replacement of fine aggregates and as a filler of asphalt mixtures. A mechanical analysis has been performed studying the effect of this by-product on the moisture sensitivity, cracking resistance and cohesion loss resistance of asphalt mixtures. Cracking resistance was assessed under different temperatures (20, 5 and -5 ºC) and conditions (unconditioned and aged). Results indicated that moisture sensitivity and cohesion loss resistance of asphalt mixtures with LG-MC by-product were not affected, obtaining similar results to those of the reference mixture. A protective effect in the mixture cracking resistance was observed using LG-MC. At low temperatures or after ageing, this by-product tends to maintain ductility to a greater extent. The study indicates that LG-MC is suitable as a partial substitute for the fine fraction of aggregates, as well as for the total amount of filler in asphalt mixtures manufacturing for road pavements

    Comparison of Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials Prepared at Laboratory Containing the Same Core and Different Shell Material

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    Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials (MPCM) are widely used in active and passive systems for thermal energy storage. To evaluate the strength of a proper shell/PCM system, comparisons were performed between laboratory-prepared MPCM samples produced by in situ polymerization with a phase change temperature of 50 degrees C and a particle size of around 1-2 mu m with tetracosane as PCM, and polystyrene (PS) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as shells. Evaluation of mechanical performance was performed for different samples by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at different temperatures (23 degrees C and 60 degrees C) and with different encapsulation ratios (1:3 and 1:1, shell:core) in order to compare their properties with the PCM below and above its phase change. Evaluations of the Effective Young's modulus (E) and deformation properties were performed for both types of MPCM. For an encapsulation mass ratio of 1:3, PS has better mechanical properties because, when increasing the temperature, the E decreases less than with PMMA. In the comparison between PS/tetracosane systems with different encapsulation mass ratios (1:3 and 1:1), E values were higher for the 1:3 encapsulation mass ratio at both temperatures under study. This means that, in terms of mechanical and thermal properties, the best combination core/shell/encapsulation mass ratio is PS/tetracosane/1:3

    Materials selection for superheater tubes in municipal solid waste incineration plants

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    Corrosion reduces the lifetime of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) superheater tubes more than any other cause. It can be minimized by the careful selection of those materials that are most resistant to corrosion under operating conditions. Since thousands of different materials are already known and many more are developed every year, here the selection methodology developed by Prof. Ashby of the University of Cambridge was used to evaluate the performance of different materials to be used as MSWI superheater tubes. The proposed materials can operate at steam pressures and temperatures over 40 bars and 400ºC, respectively. Two case studies are presented: one makes a balanced selection between mechanical properties and cost per thermal unit; and the other focuses on increasing tube lifetime. The balanced selection showed that AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel (wrought, hard tempered) is the best candidate with a good combination of corrosion resistance, a relatively low price (0.83-0.92 e/kg) and a good thermal conductivity (23-27 W/m K). Meanwhile, Nitronic 50/XM-19 stainless steel is the most promising candidate for longterm selection, as it presents high corrosion resistance with a relatively low price (4.86-5.14 e/kg) compared to Ni-alloys

    APC fly ash recycling: development of a granular material from laboratory to a pilot scale

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    The aim of this article is to present the research carried out over a 10 year period to develop an environmentally safe method for recycling Air Pollution Control (APC) residues. The initial studies aimed to formulate a mixture of Weathered Bottom Ash (WBA), APC residues and Portland Cement (PC) to be used as a sub-base in road constructions. Mechanical performance was subsequently enhanced by preparing a mortar prior to mixing it with WBA in order to obtain a granular material. After testing different formulations, the optimum mortar consisted of 50% APC residues and 50% PC. The evaluation was carried out based on the concentration release of the heavy metals and metalloids included in the Catalan legislation for revalorization of residues. After the applicability of the granular material was successfully demonstrated at laboratory scale from an environmental and mechanical point of view, a pilot scale plant was designed in order to assess its performance in a real scenario during four month. Thus, three roads were built: two containing 100% granular material and a third containing 100% WBA. The results showed that the immobilisation of all toxic species from APC residues is accomplished by the pozzolanic effect of the cement. The WBA, APC, and PC proportions show to be the most appropriate for compliance with regard to environmental and mechanics requirements

    Review of the use of phase change materials (PCMs) in buildings with reinforced concrete structures

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    Phase change materials are capable of storing and releasing energy in the form of heat in determined temperature ranges, so to increase a building"s thermal inertia, stabilize its indoor temperatures and reduce its energetic demand. Therefore, if we used these materials we could have more energetically efficient buildings. Nevertheless, are these materials most appropriate to be used in buildings? Could the incorporation of phase change materials in buildings with concrete structures be generalized? This article aims to carry out a review of these phase change materials from construction professionals" points of view, study their applications for buildings with reinforced concrete structures and the key points for these applications, draw conclusions and provide recommendations useful for all professionals within the sector who are considering the application of these materials.Revisión crítica del uso de materiales de cambio de fase en edificios con estructuras de hormigón armado. Los materiales de cambio de fase son capaces de almacenar y liberar energía en forma de calor en un determinando rango de temperaturas, y así aumentar la inercia térmica de un edificio, estabilizar las temperaturas en el interior y reducir la demanda energética. En consecuencia, si utilizáramos estos materiales podríamos tener un parque de edificios más eficientes energéticamente. No obstante, ¿estos materiales son apropiados para usarse en edificios? ¿Se podría generalizar la incorporación de materiales de cambio de fase en edificios con estructuras de hormigón? Este artículo tiene como objetivos hacer una revisión del estado del arte de estos materiales de cambio de fase desde el punto de vista de los profesionales de la construcción, estudiar las aplicaciones en edificios con estructuras de hormigón armado y los puntos clave para estas aplicaciones, extraer conclusiones y recomendaciones útiles para los profesionales del sector que se planteen la utilización de estos materiales.This research was partially funded by the Spanish government (ENE2011-28269-C03-02). The authors would like to acknowledge the support received from the Concrete Technology Research Group of Barcelona Tech (UPC). The authors would also like to thank the Catalan Government for the quality accreditation given to the research group GREA (2009 SGR 534) and the research group DIOPMA (2009 SGR 645)

    Municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash as alkali-activated cement precursor depending on particle size

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    Bottom Ash (BA) is the main by-product of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). It is stabilised outdoors to obtain weathered bottom ash (WBA) whose main application is in the construction sector as a secondary aggregate for road sub-base. Here, the aim of this work is to advance the study of the potential use of WBA as a precursor in the synthesis of new alkali-activated cements (AACs). An exhaustive physicochemical characterisation (X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy, and Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy) of WBA was provided depending on its particle size (<30, 30-16, 16-8, 8-4, 4-2 and 2-0 mm). The study reveals that WBA is composed mainly of the essential reactive phases to form AACs, which are SiO2, Al2O3, and CaO. It is demonstrated the larger the particle size, the higher the content of SiO2; and the smaller the particle size, the higher the heavy metal(loid) content. The availability of reactive phases was analysed through chemical attacks with HF and NaOH solutions of different concentrations (2M, 4M, and 8M). The results demonstrate the availability of reactive phases (including 150-250 g kg−1 of SiO2 and 50-65 g kg−1 of Al2O3) in all the particle size fractions studied. WBA potential will be of considerable use to formulate AACs, depending on the particle size fraction and the Si/Al ratio, both as the sole precursor and mixed with others

    Alkali-activated binders using bottom ash from waste-to-energy plants and aluminium recycling waste

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    Alkali-activated binders (AABs) stand out as a promising alternative to replace ordinary Portland cement (OPC) due to the possibility of using by-products and wastes in their manufacturing. This paper assessed the potential of weathered bottom ash (WBA) from waste-to-energy plants and PAVAL® (PV), a secondary aluminium recycling process by-product, as precursors of AABs. WBA and PV were mixed at weight ratios of 98/2, 95/5, and 90/10. A mixture of waterglass (WG) and NaOH at different concentrations (4 and 6 M) was used as the alkaline activator solution. The effects of increasing NaOH concentration and PV content were evaluated. Alkali-activated WBA/PV (AA-WBA/PV) binders were obtained. Selective chemical extractions and physicochemical characterization revealed the formation of C-S-H, C-A-S-H, and (N,C)-A-S-H gels. Increasing the NaOH concentration and PV content increased porosity and reduced compressive strength (25.63 to 12.07 MPa). The leaching potential of As and Sb from AA-WBA/PV exceeded the threshold for acceptance in landfills for non-hazardous waste

    Alkali-activated binders based on the coarse fraction of municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

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    The potential of the least polluted fraction (from 8 to 30mm) of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) weathered bottom ash (WBA) as an alkali-activated cement precursor was evaluated. Alkali-activated WBA binders (AA-WBA) formulations were prepared through alkali-activation of WBA as sole precursor. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) mixtures with different pH's were used as alkali-activator solution. The effect of alkali-activator solution pH on the final properties was assessed. Results showed the hydrolytic stability of allformulations. The selective chemical extractions and physicochemical characterisation revealed the formation of the C-S-H, C-A-S-H, and (N,C)-A-S-H gels. The promising compressive strength results demonstrated the potential of AA-WBA binders. The increase of pH in the alkali-activated solution promotes the formation of gel reaction products and enhance mechanical properties. This investigation promotes the green cements manufacturing and the use of secondary resources to reduce the impact of natural resources extraction used for the ordinary Portland cement (OPC) production
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