563 research outputs found

    Arbetsplatser i Kortedala och Gårdsten : branschstruktur och lokaliseringsmönster i två bostadsområden i Göteborg /

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    <p><b>Shoot (A-C) and root (D-F) ion content for <i>HKT1;1</i> native overexpression lines.</b> Statistical significance was determined using Tukey‚Äôs HSD test between each line within treatments. Bars with the same letters indicate no significant difference (<i>p</i> < 0.05). Error bars represent standard error of the mean where n = 12‚Äď18 plants.</p

    Probing Molecular Structures of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) at Buried Interfaces <i>in Situ</i>

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    Silicone materials such as poly¬≠(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are widely used in a variety of important applications such as polymer adhesives, packaging materials for microelectronics, polymer MEMS, microfluidics, biomedical implants, and marine antifouling coatings. In such applications, molecular structures of PDMS at buried interfaces will determine interfacial properties. Therefore, it is important to elucidate PDMS molecular structures at relevant buried interfaces. In this study, the interfacial structures of PDMS silicone elastomer in contact with silica and different polymer materials have been studied using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. It was found that the PDMS methyl groups are ordered at the buried poly¬≠(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/PDMS and fused silica/PDMS interfaces. However, these methyl groups tend to adopt different orientations at different interfaces. Using the SFG spectral fitting results, the possible ranges of tilt angles and twist angles of PDMS methyl groups at the buried PET/PDMS and silica/PDMS interfaces were determined. At the PET/PDMS interface, the methyl groups tend to have large tilt angles (>70¬į) with small twist angles (<20¬į). At the silica/PDMS interface, methyl groups tend to adopt a broad distribution of tilt angles along with large twist angles. The absolute orientations of the PDMS methyl groups at the buried interfaces were determined from the interference pattern of the PDMS SFG signal with the nonresonant signal from a TiO<sub>2</sub> thin film. PDMS methyl groups tend to orient toward the PDMS bulk rather than the contacting substrates at both the PET/PDMS and silica/PDMS interfaces. However, at the polystyrene/PDMS and poly¬≠(methyl methacrylate)/PDMS interfaces, PDMS methyl groups orient toward the hydrophobic polymer substrate surfaces. The different orientations of PDMS methyl groups at the investigated buried interfaces were correlated to interfacial polar interactions determined by substrate surface hydrophobicities

    Histograms of posterior probabilities for splitting the clades by BPP

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    Histograms of posterior probabilities for splitting the clades by BP

    patch MrBayes3.1.2

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    Apply this patch for the original MrBayes 3.1.2 to get the modified version with compound Dirichlet prior

    Recyclable Hypervalent-Iodine-Mediated Dehydrogenative Cyclopropanation under Metal-Free Conditions

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    A method is developed for the synthesis of cyclopropanes from the C¬≠(sp<sup>2</sup>)‚ÄďC¬≠(sp<sup>3</sup>) single bonds of ő≤-keto esters with activated methylene compounds under metal-free conditions in the presence of 5-trimethyl¬≠ammonio-1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-1őĽ<sup>5</sup>-benzo¬≠[<i>d</i>]¬≠[1,2]¬≠iodoxol-1-ol anion (AIBX), a recyclable water-soluble hypervalent iodine¬≠(V) reagent developed by our group. This mild, efficient method has a wide substrate scope and good functional group tolerance and is complementary to existing cyclopropanation strategies. The method can be used to construct polysubstituted ring-fused cyclopropanes and is amenable to further synthetic transformations for construction of complex biologically active molecules as well as asymmetric cyclopropanes (90% de) when a chiral ester auxiliary is used

    Osx ablation reduces MMP13 gene expression in vivo.

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    <p>Calvaria RNAs were isolated from E18.5 <i>Osx</i> wild-type and <i>Osx</i>-null embryos. RNA expression levels for Osx, osteocalcin (OC), Runx2 and MMP13 were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The level of each RNA from <i>Osx</i>-null calvaria was normalized to a value of 1. Values are presented as the mean ¬Ī S.D.</p

    Identification of the Osx binding site in the promoter of <i>MMP13</i> gene.

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    <p>(A) Deletion analysis of the <i>MMP13</i> promoter-reporter constructs. MMP13-1 kb, MMP13-540 bp, MMP13-210 bp and MMP13-80 bp promoter-reporter plasmids (300 ng each) were cotransfected with 400 ng of the Osx expression plasmid in HEK293 cells. Twenty-four hours post-transfection, cell extracts were prepared and analyzed for luciferase activity and normalized to ő≤-galactosidase activity. (B) The GC-rich element in MMP13-80 is responsible for <i>MMP13</i> promoter reporter activation by Osx. The promoter mutant MMP13-80-M was transfected into HEK293 cells and analyzed as described in panel A. Luciferase activity was normalized by ő≤-galactosidase activity.</p

    Endogenous Osx in primary osteoblasts is associated with the native <i>MMP13</i> promoter in vivo.

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    <p>Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were conducted using primary calvarial osteoblasts isolated from new born wild-type mice. Anti-Osx antibody (a-Osx) was used for ChIP analysis, and IgG was used as a negative control. The precipitated chromatin was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. As described in the Methods, primer Set 1 corresponds to a segment covering the GC-rich element within 80 bp <i>MMP13</i> promoter. As a negative control, Primer Set 2 covers a distal 3 kb region of the <i>MMP13</i> promoter, which does not contain GC-rich sequences.</p

    Multireflection Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy

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    We developed a multireflection data collection method in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and sensitivity of sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, which we refer to as multireflection SFG, or MRSFG for short. To achieve MRSFG, a collinear laser beam propagation geometry was adopted and trapezoidal Dove prisms were used as sample substrates. An in-depth discussion on the signal and SNR in MRSFG was performed. We showed experimentally, with ‚Äú<i>m</i>‚ÄĚ total internal reflections in a Dove prism, MRSFG signal is ‚ąľ<i>m</i> times that of conventional SFG; SNR of the SFG signal-to-background is improved by a factor of ><i>m</i><sup>1/2</sup> and <<i>m</i>. MRSFG also improved the SFG sensitivity to resolve weak vibrational signals. Surface molecular structures of adsorbed ethanol molecules, polymer films, and a lipid monolayer were characterized using both MRSFG and conventional SFG. Molecular orientation information on lipid molecules with a 9% composition in a mixed monolayer was measured using MRSFG, which showed a good agreement with that derived from 100% lipid surface coverage using conventional SFG. MRSFG can both improve the spectral quality and detection limit of SFG spectroscopy and is expected to have important applications in surface science for studying structures of molecules with a low surface coverage or less ordered molecular moieties
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