1,567 research outputs found

    Search for the standard model Higgs boson in H → ZZ → l+l−τ+τ− decay channel with the CMS experiment at √s = 7 and 8TeV

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    A search for the standard model Higgs boson in the decay mode H → ZZ → l+l−τ+τ− (l = e,ÎŒ) is presented. The analysis uses the protonproton collision data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosity of 5.1 fb−1 at √s = 7TeV and 12.2 fb−1 at √s = 8TeV. Both the hadronic and leptonic decays of τ are inspected. No evidence is found for a significant deviation from the standard model expectations anywhere in the ZZ mass range considered in this analysis. An upper limit at 95% confidence level is placed on the product of the cross-section and the decay branching ratio for the Higgs boson decaying with standard-model–like couplings, which excludes the crosssections of about two to four times the expected values for the Higgs boson masses in the range of 190 < mH < 600 GeV/c2

    Triggering Dark Showers with Conditional Dual Auto-Encoders

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    Auto-encoders (AEs) have the potential to be effective and generic tools for new physics searches at colliders, requiring little to no model-dependent assumptions. New hypothetical physics signals can be considered anomalies that deviate from the well-known background processes generally expected to describe the whole dataset. We present a search formulated as an anomaly detection (AD) problem, using an AE to define a criterion to decide about the physics nature of an event. In this work, we perform an AD search for manifestations of a dark version of strong force using raw detector images, which are large and very sparse, without leveraging any physics-based pre-processing or assumption on the signals. We propose a dual-encoder design which can learn a compact latent space through conditioning. In the context of multiple AD metrics, we present a clear improvement over competitive baselines and prior approaches. It is the first time that an AE is shown to exhibit excellent discrimination against multiple dark shower models, illustrating the suitability of this method as a performant, model-independent algorithm to deploy, e.g., in the trigger stage of LHC experiments such as ATLAS and CMS.Comment: 25 pages, 7 figures, and 11 table

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE – on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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