10 research outputs found

    Pure phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation contributes to the N30 frontal component of somatosensory evoked potentials

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    BACKGROUND: Evoked potentials have been proposed to result from phase-locking of electroencephalographic (EEG) activities within specific frequency bands. However, the respective contribution of phasic activity and phase resetting of ongoing EEG oscillation remains largely debated. We here applied the EEGlab procedure in order to quantify the contribution of electroencephalographic oscillation in the generation of the frontal N30 component of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) triggered by median nerve electrical stimulation at the wrist. Power spectrum and intertrial coherence analysis were performed on EEG recordings in relation to median nerve stimulation. RESULTS: The frontal N30 component was accompanied by a significant phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation (25-35 Hz) and to a lesser extent of 80 Hz oscillation. After the selection in each subject of the trials for which the power spectrum amplitude remained unchanged, we found pure phase-locking of beta/gamma oscillation (25-35 Hz) peaking about 30 ms after the stimulation. Transition across trials from uniform to normal phase distribution revealed temporal phase reorganization of ongoing 30 Hz EEG oscillations in relation to stimulation. In a proportion of trials, this phase-locking was accompanied by a spectral power increase peaking in the 30 Hz frequency band. This corresponds to the complex situation of 'phase-locking with enhancement' in which the distinction between the contribution of phasic neural event versus EEG phase resetting is hazardous. CONCLUSION: The identification of a pure phase-locking in a large proportion of the SEP trials reinforces the contribution of the oscillatory model for the physiological correlates of the frontal N30. This may imply that ongoing EEG rhythms, such as beta/gamma oscillation, are involved in somatosensory information processing.Comparative StudyJournal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Sensory Stimulation-Dependent Plasticity in the Cerebellar Cortex of Alert Mice

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    In vitro studies have supported the occurrence of cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), an interaction between the parallel fibers and Purkinje cells (PCs) that requires the combined activation of the parallel and climbing fibers. To demonstrate the existence of LTD in alert animals, we investigated the plasticity of local field potentials (LFPs) evoked by electrical stimulation of the whisker pad. The recorded LFP showed two major negative waves corresponding to trigeminal (broken into the N2 and N3 components) and cortical responses. PC unitary extracellular recording showed that N2 and N3 occurred concurrently with PC evoked simple spikes, followed by an evoked complex spike. Polarity inversion of the N3 component at the PC level and N3 amplitude reduction after electrical stimulation of the parallel fiber volley applied on the surface of the cerebellum 2 ms earlier strongly suggest that N3 was related to the parallel fiber–PC synapse activity. LFP measurements elicited by single whisker pad stimulus were performed before and after trains of electrical stimuli given at a frequency of 8 Hz for 10 min. We demonstrated that during this later situation, the stimulation of the PC by parallel and climbing fibers was reinforced. After 8-Hz stimulation, we observed long-term modifications (lasting at least 30 min) characterized by a specific decrease of the N3 amplitude accompanied by an increase of the N2 and N3 latency peaks. These plastic modifications indicated the existence of cerebellar LTD in alert animals involving both timing and synaptic modulations. These results corroborate the idea that LTD may underlie basic physiological functions related to calcium-dependent synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum

    Two reference frames for visual perception in two gravity conditions.

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    The processing and storage of visual information concerning the orientation of objects in space is carried out in anisotropic reference frames in which all orientations are not treated equally. The perceptual anisotropies, and the implicit reference frames that they define, are evidenced by the observation of 'oblique effects' in which performance on a given perceptual task is better for horizontally and vertically oriented stimuli. The question remains how the preferred horizontal and vertical reference frames are defined. In these experiments cosmonaut subjects reproduced the remembered orientation of a visual stimulus in 1g (on the ground) and in 0g, both attached to a chair and while free-floating within the International Space Station. Results show that while the remembered orientation of a visual stimulus may be stored in a multimodal reference frame that includes gravity, an egocentric reference is sufficient to elicit the oblique effect when all gravitational and haptic cues are absent.Journal ArticleResearch Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tSCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    Noise characteristics in spaceflight multichannel EEG.

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    The cognitive performance of the crew has a major impact on mission safety and success in space flight. Monitoring of cognitive performance during long-duration space flight therefore is of paramount importance and can be performed using compact state-of-the-art mobile EEG. However, signal quality of EEG may be compromised due to the vicinity to various electronic devices and constant movements. We compare noise characteristics between in-flight extraterrestrial microgravity and ground-level terrestrial electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. EEG data recordings from either aboard International Space Station (ISS) or on earth's surface, utilizing three EEG amplifiers and two electrode types, were compared. In-flight recordings showed noise level of an order of magnitude lower when compared to pre- and post-flight ground-level recordings with the same EEG system. Noise levels between ground-level recordings with actively shielded cables, and in-flight recordings without shielded cables, were similar. Furthermore, noise level characteristics of shielded ground-level EEG recordings, using wet and dry electrodes, and in-flight EEG recordings were similar. Actively shielded mobile dry EEG systems will support neuroscientific research and neurocognitive monitoring during spaceflight, especially during long-duration space missions

    Detection of Cerebral Electroencephalographic Patterns After Median Nerve Stimulation During Propofol-Induced General Anesthesia : a Prospective Interventional Cohort Study

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    International audienceBackground: Devices used to assess depth of anesthesia and clinical parameters may not be sufficient to prevent intraoperative accidental awareness 1. An alternative would be to detect the patient's intention to move in order to alert the medical staff 2. We believe that the data obtained after multiple median nerve stimulation (MNS) during general anesthesia will help us to prevent intraoperative awareness 2. Methods: In this prospective, interventional trial, 30 volunteers aged from 18 to 81 years with informed consent will be enrolled for scheduled surgery from 15th January 2023 to 31st December 2026. Are excluded patients who are allergic to propofol or have a history of anaphylactic reaction, pregnant women and patients with a psychiatric disease. This study is approved by the CHU Brugmann ethical committee (CE 2021/225) and is registered at EUDRACT (2021-006457-56) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05272202). EEG data based on MNS is first recorded with the patient awake, then a second recording is made under general anesthesia during the surgery. MNS is obtained by electrodes placed on the wrist. EEG signal is acquired by using a TMSi 64-channel system covering the scalp. An EEG amplifier records the changes in ERD (event-related desynchronization) and ERS (event-related synchronization) patterns at various concentrations of propofol delivered by a target-controlled infusion pump. The primary endpoint is the comparison of the average maximal values of amplitude of the ERD/ERS at rest and at various concentrations of propofol. The average ERDs max and ERSs max are compared with a Student t-test (P<0.05). Results: Our intermediate results (n=4 curarized patients) shows the ERS in the mu/beta frequency band after MNS before general anesthesia (Fig. 1A). After propofol induction, the post-stimulation ERS disappears significantly (Fig. 1B; P<0.01 with FDR correction). Conclusions: The preliminary data extracted from the ERD/ERS consecutive to MNS seems to disappear with high concentration of propofol contrary to previous studies at lower levels2. Therefore, this study is not conclusive in terms of the ERD/ERS patterns used but other EEG features (i.e., brain connectivity, somatosensory evoked potential) could be investigated and will be the subject of future research

    Downregulation of the Glial GLT1 Glutamate Transporter and Purkinje Cell Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Myotonic Dystrophy.

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    Brain function is compromised in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To gain insight into the cellular and molecular pathways primarily affected, we studied a mouse model of DM1 and brains of adult patients. We found pronounced RNA toxicity in the Bergmann glia of the cerebellum, in association with abnormal Purkinje cell firing and fine motor incoordination in DM1 mice. A global proteomics approach revealed downregulation of the GLT1 glutamate transporter in DM1 mice and human patients, which we found to be the result of MBNL1 inactivation. GLT1 downregulation in DM1 astrocytes increases glutamate neurotoxicity and is detrimental to neurons. Finally, we demonstrated that the upregulation of GLT1 corrected Purkinje cell firing and motor incoordination in DM1 mice. Our findings show that glial defects are critical in DM1 brain pathophysiology and open promising therapeutic perspectives through the modulation of glutamate levels