87 research outputs found

    Universal charts for optical difference frequency generation in the terahertz domain

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    We present a universal and rigorous approach to study difference frequency generation in the terahertz domain, keeping the number of degrees of freedom to a minimum, through the definition of a suitable figure of merit. The proposed method relies on suitably normalized charts, that enable to predict the optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency of any system based on wave propagation in quadratic nonlinear materials. The predictions of our approach are found to be in good agreement with the best experimental results reported to date, enabling also to estimate the d22 nonlinear coefficient of high quality GaSe.Comment: 3 pages in 2 columns format, 3 figures. GaSe analysis has been corrected. Fig. 3 has been replace

    The role of nonlinear optical absorption in narrow-band difference frequency terahertz-wave generation

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    We present a general analysis of the influence of nonlinear optical absorption on terahertz generation via optical difference frequency generation, when reaching for the quantum conversion efficiency limit. By casting the equations governing the process in a suitably normalized form, including either two-photon- or three-photon-absorption terms, we have been able to plot universal charts for phase matched optical-to-terahertz conversion for different values of the nonlinear absorption coefficients. We apply our analysis to some experiments reported to date, in order to understand to what extent multiphoton absorption could have played a role and also to predict the maximum achievable conversion efficiency at higher peak pump intensities.Comment: 16 pages, 2 figures. Some correction and some explanation adde

    Exploiting the optical quadratic nonlinearity of zincblende semiconductors for guided-wave terahertz generation: a material comparison

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    We present a detailed analysis and comparison of dielectric waveguides made of CdTe, GaP, GaAs and InP for modal phase matched optical difference frequency generation (DFG) in the terahertz domain. From the form of the DFG equations, we derived the definition of a very general figure of merit (FOM). In turn, this FOM enabled us to compare different configurations, by taking into account linear and nonlinear susceptibility dispersion, terahertz absorption, and a rigorous evaluation of the waveguide modes properties. The most efficient waveguides found with this procedure are predicted to approach the quantum efficiency limit with input optical power in the order of kWs.Comment: 8 pages in two columns format, 6 figures, 2 Table

    Glycosaminoglycan diversity in marine sponge extracellular matrix

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    Aim of this paper is to report on a screening on sponge ECM glycosaminoglycan (GAG) diversity. To investigate the heterogeneity of sponge extracellular sulphated glycans, we determined their content and distribution in some Mediterranean and Caribbean species. To focus on biological and morpho-functional roles of these molecules in the sponge ECM some selected species were considered as models to investigate the topographic distribution of GAGs in sponge body according with the different architecture of specialized regions

    Eliciting the Demand for Long Term Care Coverage: A Discrete Choice Modelling Analysis

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    Colorectal Cancer Stage at Diagnosis Before vs During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy

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    IMPORTANCE Delays in screening programs and the reluctance of patients to seek medical attention because of the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 could be associated with the risk of more advanced colorectal cancers at diagnosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic was associated with more advanced oncologic stage and change in clinical presentation for patients with colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included all 17 938 adult patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2021 (pandemic period), and from January 1, 2018, to February 29, 2020 (prepandemic period), in 81 participating centers in Italy, including tertiary centers and community hospitals. Follow-up was 30 days from surgery. EXPOSURES Any type of surgical procedure for colorectal cancer, including explorative surgery, palliative procedures, and atypical or segmental resections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was advanced stage of colorectal cancer at diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were distant metastasis, T4 stage, aggressive biology (defined as cancer with at least 1 of the following characteristics: signet ring cells, mucinous tumor, budding, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymphangitis), stenotic lesion, emergency surgery, and palliative surgery. The independent association between the pandemic period and the outcomes was assessed using multivariate random-effects logistic regression, with hospital as the cluster variable. RESULTS A total of 17 938 patients (10 007 men [55.8%]; mean [SD] age, 70.6 [12.2] years) underwent surgery for colorectal cancer: 7796 (43.5%) during the pandemic period and 10 142 (56.5%) during the prepandemic period. Logistic regression indicated that the pandemic period was significantly associated with an increased rate of advanced-stage colorectal cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95%CI, 1.01-1.13; P = .03), aggressive biology (OR, 1.32; 95%CI, 1.15-1.53; P < .001), and stenotic lesions (OR, 1.15; 95%CI, 1.01-1.31; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This cohort study suggests a significant association between the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the risk of a more advanced oncologic stage at diagnosis among patients undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer and might indicate a potential reduction of survival for these patients
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