105 research outputs found

    6DOF Pose Estimation of a 3D Rigid Object based on Edge-enhanced Point Pair Features

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    The point pair feature (PPF) is widely used for 6D pose estimation. In this paper, we propose an efficient 6D pose estimation method based on the PPF framework. We introduce a well-targeted down-sampling strategy that focuses more on edge area for efficient feature extraction of complex geometry. A pose hypothesis validation approach is proposed to resolve the symmetric ambiguity by calculating edge matching degree. We perform evaluations on two challenging datasets and one real-world collected dataset, demonstrating the superiority of our method on pose estimation of geometrically complex, occluded, symmetrical objects. We further validate our method by applying it to simulated punctures.Comment: 16 pages,20 figure

    SOT-MRAM-Enabled Probabilistic Binary Neural Networks for Noise-Tolerant and Fast Training

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    We report the use of spin-orbit torque (SOT) magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) to implement a probabilistic binary neural network (PBNN) for resource-saving applications. The in-plane magnetized SOT (i-SOT) MRAM not only enables field-free magnetization switching with high endurance (> 10^11), but also hosts multiple stable probabilistic states with a low device-to-device variation (< 6.35%). Accordingly, the proposed PBNN outperforms other neural networks by achieving an 18* increase in training speed, while maintaining an accuracy above 97% under the write and read noise perturbations. Furthermore, by applying the binarization process with an additional SOT-MRAM dummy module, we demonstrate an on-chip MNIST inference performance close to the ideal baseline using our SOT-PBNN hardware

    Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-bâ€Č]difuran-based sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

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    Two BDF-based organic sensitizers, as first examples for their use in dye-sensitized solar cells, are prepared and characterized. They yield promising power conversion efficiencies of up to 5.5% and high open circuit voltages up to 0.82 V. This work demonstrates that the BDF chromophore acts as an effective donor in organic sensitizers

    Molecular Engineering of Potent Sensitizers for Very Efficient Light Harvesting in Thin-Film Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

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    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have shown significant potential for indoor arid building integrated photovoltaic applications. Herein we present three new D-A-pi-A organic sensitizers, XY1, XY2, and XY3, that exhibit high molar extinction coefficients and a broad absorption range. Molecular modifications of these dyes, featuring a benzothiadiazole (BTZ) auxiliary acceptor, were achieved by introducing a thiophene heterocycle as well as by shifting the, position of BTZ on the conjugated bridge. The ensuing high molar absorption coefficients enabled the fabrication of highly efficient thin-film solid-state DSSCs with only 1.3 mu m mesoporous TiO2 layer. XY2 with a molar extinction coefficient of 6.66 X 10(4) M-1 cm(-1) at 578 nm led to the best photovoltaic performance of 7.51%

    Double layer composite electrode strategy for efficient perovskite solar cells with excellent reverse-bias stability

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    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have become the representatives of next generation of photovoltaics; nevertheless, their stability is insufficient for large scale deployment, particularly the reverse bias stability. Here, we propose a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) and low-cost metal composite electrode to improve the stability of PSCs without sacrificing the efficiency. The TCO can block ion migrations and chemical reactions between the metal and perovskite, while the metal greatly enhances the conductivity of the composite electrode. As a result, composite electrode-PSCs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 23.7% (certified 23.2%) and exhibited excellent stability, maintaining 95% of the initial PCE when applying a reverse bias of 4.0 V for 60 s and over 92% of the initial PCE after 1000 h continuous light soaking. This composite electrode strategy can be extended to different combinations of TCOs and metals. It opens a new avenue for improving the stability of PSCs

    Polymer-templated nucleation and crystal growth of perovskite films for solar cells with efficiency greater than 21%

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    The past several years have witnessed the rapid emergence of a class of solar cells based on mixed organic-inorganic halide perovskites. Today's state-of-the-art perovskite solar cells (PSCs) employ various methods to enhance nucleation and improve the smoothness of the perovskite films formed via solution processing. However, the lack of precise control over the crystallization process creates a risk of forming unwanted defects, for example, pinholes and grain boundaries. Here, we introduce an approach to prepare perovskite films of high electronic quality by using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a template to control nucleation and crystal growth. We obtain shiny smooth perovskite films of excellent electronic quality, as manifested by a remarkably long photoluminescence lifetime. We realize stable PSCs with excellent reproducibility showing a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of up to 21.6% and a certified PCE of 21.02% under standard AM 1.5G reporting conditions

    Multifunctional succinate additive for flexible perovskite solar cells with more than 23% power-conversion efficiency

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    Flexible perovskite solar cells (FPSCs) have emerged as power sources in versatile applications owing to their high-efficiency characteristics, excellent flexibility, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, undesired strain in perovskite films greatly impacts the power-conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of PSCs, particularly in FPSCs. Herein, a novel multifunctional organic salt, methylammonium succinate, which can alleviate strain and reinforce grain boundaries, was incorporated into the perovskite film, leading to relaxed microstrain and a lower defect concentration. As a result, a PCE of 25.4% for rigid PSCs and a record PCE of 23.6% (certified 22.5%) for FPSCs have been achieved. In addition, the corresponding FPSCs exhibited excellent bending durability, maintaining ∌85% of their initial efficiency after bending at a 6 mm radius for 10 000 cycles

    Dopant-Free Donor (D)–p–D–p–D Conjugated Hole- Transport Materials for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells

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    Three novel hole-transporting materials (HTMs) using the 4-methoxytriphenylamine (MeOTPA) core were designed and synthesized. The energy levels of the HTMs were tuned to match the perovskite energy levels by introducing symmetrical electron-donating groups linked with olefinic bonds as the bridge. The methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI(3)) perovskite solar cells based on the new HTM Z34 (see main text for structure) exhibited a remarkable overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.1% without any dopants or additives, which is comparable to 16.7% obtained by a p-doped 2,2,7,7-tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD)-based device fabricated under the same conditions. Importantly, the devices based on the three new HTMs show relatively improved stability compared to devices based on spiro-OMeTAD when aged under ambient air containing 30% relative humidity in the dark

    Applications of vacuum vapor deposition for perovskite solar cells: A progress review

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    Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have made substantial progress in power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability in the past decade thanks to the advancements in perovskite deposition methodology, charge transport layer (CTL) optimization, and encapsulation technology. Solution-based methods have been intensively investigated and a 25.7% certified efficiency has been achieved. Vacuum vapor deposition protocols were less studied, but have nevertheless received increasing attention from industry and academia due to the great potential for large-area module fabrication, facile integration with tandem solar cell architectures, and compatibility with industrial manufacturing approaches. In this article, we systematically discuss the applications of several promising vacuum vapor deposition techniques, namely thermal evaporation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD), magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and electron beam evaporation (e-beam evaporation) in the fabrication of CTLs, perovskite absorbers, encapsulants, and connection layers for monolithic tandem solar cells

    Sequential vacuum-evaporated perovskite solar cells with more than 24% efficiency

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    Vacuum evaporation is promising for the high-throughput fabrication of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of its solvent-free characteristic, precise control of film thickness, and compatibility with large-scale production. Nevertheless, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of PSCs fabricated by vacuum evaporation lags behind that of solution-processed PSCs. Here, we report a Cl-containing alloy-mediated sequential vacuum evaporation approach to fabricate perovskite films. The presence of Cl in the alloy facilitates organic ammonium halide diffusion and the subsequent perovskite conversion reaction, leading to homogeneous pinhole-free perovskite films with few defects. The resulting PSCs yield a PCE of 24.42%, 23.44% (certified 22.6%), and 19.87% for 0.1, 1.0, and 14.4 square centimeters (mini-module, aperture area), respectively. The unencapsulated PSCs show good stability with negligible decline in performance after storage in dry air for more than 4000 hours. Our method provides a reproducible approach for scalable fabrication of large-area, high-efficiency PSCs and other perovskite-based optoelectronics
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