4,566 research outputs found

    Network performance isolation for latency-sensitive cloud applications

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    Virtual laboratory development for teaching power electronics

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    Author name used in this publication: Cheng K. W. E.Author name used in this publication: Cheung N. C.Author name used in this publication: Sutanto D.Power Electronics Research Centre, Department of Electrical EngineeringRefereed conference paper2001-2002 > Academic research: refereed > Refereed conference paperVersion of RecordPublishe

    Assessing Suicide Risk and Emotional Distress in Chinese Social Media: A Text Mining and Machine Learning Study

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    Single crystal PMN-0.33PT/epoxy 1-3 composites for ultrasonic transducer applications

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    Author name used in this publication: Hasou LuoAuthor name used in this publication: Kei C. Cheng2003-2004 > Academic research: refereed > Publication in refereed journalVersion of RecordPublishe

    Expression and activities of three inducible enzymes in the healing of gastric ulcers in rats

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    Aim: To explore the roles of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), heme oxygenase (HO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) in gastric ulceration and to investigate the relationships of the expression and activities of these enzymes at different stages of gastric ulceration. Methods: Gastric ulcers (kissing ulcers) were induced by luminal application of acetic acid. Gastric tissue samples were obtained from the ulcer base, ulcer margin, and non-ulcerated area around the ulcer margin at different time intervals after ulcer induction. The mRNA expression and protein levels of inducible and constitutive isoforms of NOS, HO and COX were analyzed with RT-PCR and Western blotting methods. The activities of the total NOS, inducible NOS (iNOS), HO, and COX were also determined. Results: Differential expression of inducible iNOS, HO-1 and COX-2 and enzyme activities of NOS, HO and COX were found in the gastric ulcer base. High iNOS expression and activity were observed on day 1 to day 3 in severely inflamed ulcer tissues. Maximum expressions of HO-1 and COX-2 and enzyme activities of HO and COX lagged behind that of iNOS, and remained at high levels during the healing phase. Conclusion: The expression and activities of inducible NOS, HO-1 and COX-2 are found to be correlated to different stages of gastric ulceration. Inducible NOS may contribute to ulcer formation while HO-1 and COX-2 may promote ulcer healing.published_or_final_versio

    Chronic adiponectin deficiency leads to Alzheimer’s disease-like cognitive impairments and pathologies through AMPK inactivation and cerebral insulin resistance in aged mice

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    BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is the major pathogenesis underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and these patients have doubled risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in AD pathogenesis, possibly due to abnormal GSK3β activation, causing intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects. Reduced circulatory APN level is associated with insulin resistance and T2DM. The role of APN in AD has not been elucidated. In this study, we aim to examine if adiponectin deficiency would lead to cerebral insulin resistance, cognitive decline and Alzheimer's-like pathology in mice. METHODS: To study the role of adiponectin in cognitive functions, we employed adiponectin-knockout (APN-KO) mice and demonstrated chronic APN deficiency in their CNS. Behavioral tests were performed to study the cognitions of male APN-KO mice. Brains and tissue lysates were collected to study the pathophysiological and molecular changes in the brain of APN-KO mice. SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line was used to study the molecular mechanism upon APN and insulin treatment. RESULTS: Aged APN-deficient mice displayed spatial memory and learning impairments, fear-conditioned memory deficit as well as anxiety. These mice also developed AD pathologies including increased cerebral Aβ42 level, Aβ deposition, hyperphosphorylated Tau proteins, microgliosis and astrogliosis with increased cerebral IL-1β and TNFα levels that associated with increased neuronal apoptosis and reduced synaptic proteins levels, suggesting APN deficiency may lead to neuronal and synaptic loss in the brain. AD pathologies-associated APN-KO mice displayed attenuated AMPK phosphorylation and impaired insulin signaling including decreased Akt induction and increased GSK3β activation in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Aged APN-KO mice developed hippocampal insulin resistance with reduced pAkt induction upon intracerebral insulin injection. Consistently, APN treatment in SH-SY5Y cells with insulin resistance and overexpressing Aβ induce higher pAkt levels through AdipoR1 upon insulin treatment whereas the induction was blocked by compound C, indicating APN can enhance neuronal insulin sensitivity through AMPK activation. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that chronic APN deficiency inactivated AMPK causing insulin desensitization and elicited AD-like pathogenesis in aged mice which also developed significant cognitive impairments and psychiatric symptoms.published_or_final_versio

    Databases in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Potential for a Distributed Network Approach

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    Background: This study describes the availability and characteristics of databases in Asian-Pacific countries and assesses the feasibility of a distributed network approach in the region. Methods: A web-based survey was conducted among investigators using healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific countries. Potential survey participants were identified through the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Results: Investigators from a total of 11 databases participated in the survey. Database sources included four nationwide claims databases from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan; two nationwide electronic health records from Hong Kong and Singapore; a regional electronic health record from western China; two electronic health records from Thailand; and cancer and stroke registries from Taiwan. Conclusions: We identified 11 databases with capabilities for distributed network approaches. Many country-specific coding systems and terminologies have been already converted to international coding systems. The harmonization of health expenditure data is a major obstacle for future investigations attempting to evaluate issues related to medical costs.postprin
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