174 research outputs found

    Is exposure to secondhand smoke associated with cognitive parameters of children and adolescents?—a systematic literature review

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    PURPOSE: Despite the known association of second hand smoke (SHS) with increased risk of ill health and mortality, the effects of SHS exposure on cognitive functioning in children and adolescents are unclear. Through a critical review of the literature we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between these variables. METHODS: The authors systematically reviewed articles (dated 1989–2012) that investigated the association between SHS exposure (including in utero due to SHS exposure by pregnant women) and performance on neurocognitive and academic tests. Eligible studies were identified from searches of Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Zetoc, and Clinicaltrials.gov. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were identified, of which 12 showed inverse relationships between SHS and cognitive parameters. Prenatal SHS exposure was inversely associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in young children, whereas postnatal SHS exposure was associated with poor academic achievement and neurocognitive performance in older children and adolescents. Furthermore, SHS exposure was associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations should be made to the public to avoid sources of SHS and future research should investigate interactions between SHS exposure and other risk factors for delayed neurodevelopment and poor cognitive performance

    The complex picture of self-harm during the COVID-19 pandemic

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    © 2021 The Author. Published by Elsevier. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100123Published versio

    Age-related disparities in modifiable risk factors for diabetes in adult populations

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    © 2021 The Author. Published by Elsevier. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2666-7568(21)00214-2Published versio

    Beliefs about medicines and non-adherence in patients with stroke, diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study in China

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    OBJECTIVES: To investigate beliefs about medicines and their association with medicine adherence in patients with chronic diseases in China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study SETTING: Two large urban hospitals in Hefei and Tianjin, China PARTICIPANTS: Hospital inpatients (313 stroke patients) and outpatients (315 diabetic patients and 339 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients) were recruited between January 2014 and September 2014. OUTCOME MEASURES: The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), assessing patients' beliefs about the specific medicine (Specific-Necessity and Specific-Concerns) prescribed for their conditions (stroke/diabetes/RA) and more general background beliefs about pharmaceuticals as a class of treatment (BMQ-General Benefit, Harm and Overuse); the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines scale (PSM) assessed patients' beliefs about how sensitive they were to the effects of medicines and the Medication Adherence Report Scale. The association between non-adherence and beliefs about medicines was assessed using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes mellitus had a stronger perceived need for treatment (mean (SD) Specific-Necessity score, 3.75 (0.40)) than patients with stroke (3.69 (0.53)) and RA (3.66 (0.44)) (p=0.049). Moderate correlations were observed between Specific-Concerns and General-Overuse, General-Harm and PSM (Pearson correlation coefficients, 0.39, 0.49 and 0.49, respectively, p<0.01). Three hundred and eleven patients were non-adherent to their medicine (159 (51.0%) in the stroke group, 60 (26.7%) in the diabetes mellitus group and 62 (19.8%) in the RA group, p<0.01). Across the whole sample, after adjusting for demographic characteristics, non-adherence was associated with patients who had higher concerns about their medicines (OR, 1.35, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.71) and patients who believed that they were personally sensitive to the effects of medications (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.85). CONCLUSION: The BMQ is a useful tool to identify patients at risk of non-adherence. In the future, adherence intervention studies may use the BMQ to screen for patients who are at risk of non-adherence and to map interventional support

    Effect of a booster dose of influenza vaccine in patients with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant recipients: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

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    Booster influenza vaccination has been recommended for patients with chronic renal disease in order to enhance the immune response to the influenza vaccine; however, the efficacy of a booster influenza vaccination is a matter of controversy. Therefore, we made a meta-analysis to determine the efficacy in patients with hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and renal transplant recipient (RT). The sero-protection rate was used as a serologic parameter to describe the immune response to the vaccine. Statistical analysis was performed to calculate the pooled rate difference (RD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The pooled RD for the H1N1, H3N2 and B influenza vaccines was 0.02 (95% CI: −0.02–0.06), 0.05 (95% CI: −0.01–0.11), 0.04 (95% CI: −0.02–0.10), respectively. We concluded that a booster dose of the influenza vaccine did not effectively enhance immunogenicity. Therefore, a booster dose of vaccine is not recommended for patients with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and renal transplant recipients.Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, Chin

    Socioeconomic deprivation and provision of acute and long-term care after stroke: the South London Stroke Register cohort study

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    Background and aims Socioeconomic deprivation (SED) is associated with increased mortality after stroke, however, its associations with stroke care remains uncertain. We assessed the SED impacts on acute and long-term stroke care, and examined their ethnic differences and secular trends. Methods We used data from 4202 patients with first-ever stroke (mean age 70.1 years, 50.4% male, 20.4% black), collected by a population-based stroke register in South London, England from 1995 to 2010. Carstairs deprivation score was measured for each patient, taking the 1st as the least deprived and the 2nd to 5th quintiles as SED, and was related to 20 indicators of care in multivariate logistic regression models. Results Patients with SED had 29% and 35% statistically significant reductions in odds of being admitted to hospital and having swallow tests, respectively. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) for receiving five indicators of acute stroke care was 0.81 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.92). It was 0.76 (0.58 to 0.99) in black patients and 0.82 (0.71 to 0.96) in white patients; and 0.70 (0.58 to 0.84) in patients with stroke occurring before 2001 and 0.89 (0.75 to 1.05) since 2001. SED was further associated with receipt of some stroke care during 5 years of follow-up, including atrial fibrillation medication (0.63, 0.48 to 0.83), and in black patients physiotherapy and occupational therapy (0.32, 0.11 to 0.92). Conclusions Stroke healthcare inequalities in England exist for some important indicators, although overall it has improved over time. The impact of SED may be stronger in black patients than in white patients. Further efforts are required to achieve stroke care equality.National Institute for Health Research Programme Grant (RP-PG-0407-10184

    The efficacy of strength and conditioning training on dance injury in pre-professional dancers

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    Abstract of a presentation delivered at IADMS 33rd Annual Conference: Columbus, Ohio, October 12-15, 2023

    Psychosocial determinants of depression in the community of the elderly with cardiovascular disease

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    The co-morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression is quite frequent in old people, and some potential biological and behavioural mechanisms linking them have been reported. Yet the impact of psychosocial factors on depression in the elderly with CVD remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the psychosocial determinants of depression in the elderly with CVD. Using the Geriatric Mental Status-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy, a community-based household survey was performed in 2,199 elderly people from the Anhui cohort third-wave survey from 2007 to 2009 and an extended study in Hubei from 2010 to 2011. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the influence of psychosocial factors on depression. Among them, the prevalence of depression was 4.77%. Three factors were associated with depression in elderly in the community: self-assessed physical health status, anything else severely upsetting and unpleasantness with relatives, friends, or neighbors. In particular, associations of psychosocial factors with depression were more evident in individuals with CVD. This study confirms several psychosocial determinants of depression and the impact of CVD on the associations among the elderly, which provides some clues for interventional strategies of late-life depression

    The effects of intravenous insulin infusions on early mortality for patients with acute coronary syndromes who present with hyperglycaemia: A matched propensity analysis using data from the MINAP database 2008–2012

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    BACKGROUND: In acute coronary syndrome, the use of intravenous insulin infusions (IVII) to control hyperglycaemia is based on limited evidence of survival benefit. AIMS: To compare 7 day survival for patients receiving IVII compared with those receiving routine care to control admission hyperglycaemia (>=11 mmol/l) in acute coronary syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used matched propensity analysis to examine observational data from the MINAP database between 2008 and 2012. We matched 5974 pairs of patients. We separately examined outcomes for ST elevation (STEMI) and non ST segment elevation (NSTEMI) infarctions, and those without known diabetes and those with type 2 diabetes. Survival benefit from the use of IVII was seen only in patients with STEMI not known to have diabetes at admission (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.92), p=0.005). Those with STEMI and existing type 2 diabetes who received IVII showed similar outcomes to routine care (HR 0.99 (95% CI 0.80-1.23), p=0.931). In patients with NSTEMI IVII was associated with significantly worse adjusted 7 day survival outcome than routine care, regardless of diabetes status; for those without known diabetes, HR 1.50 (95% CI 1.04-2.16), p=0.029, and for those with type 2 diabetes, HR 1.35 (95% CI 1.08-1.70), p=0.010. CONCLUSION: As used in current clinical practice to treat hyperglycaemia in acute coronary syndromes, IVII appears to be of benefit only for patients with STEMI who are not known to have diabetes. IVII is associated with adverse early outcomes in patients with NSTEMI

    Association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure and dementia syndromes

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    © 2020 The Authors. Published by BMJ. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2012-100785Objectives: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a range of adverse health effects, but its association with dementia remains unclear and with dementia syndromes unknown. We examined the dose-response relationship between ETS exposure and dementia syndromes. Methods: Using a standard method of GMS, we interviewed 5921 people aged ≥60 years in five provinces in China in 2007-2009 and characterised their ETS exposure. Five levels of dementia syndrome were diagnosed using the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy instrument. The relative risk (RR) of moderate (levels 1-2) and severe (levels 3-5) dementia syndromes among participants exposed to ETS was calculated in multivariate adjusted regression models. Results: 626 participants (10.6%) had severe dementia syndromes and 869 (14.7%) moderate syndromes. Participants exposed to ETS had a significantly increased risk of severe syndromes (adjusted RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.59). This was dose-dependently related to exposure level and duration. The cumulative exposure dose data showed an adjusted RR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.28) for >0-24 level years of exposure, 1.15 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.42) for 25-49 level years, 1.18 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.59) for 59-74 level years, 1.39 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.84) for 75-99 level years and 1.95 (95% CI 1.34 to 2.83) for ≥100 level years. Significant associations with severe syndromes were found in never smokers and in former/current smokers. There were no positive associations between ETS and moderate dementia syndromes. Conclusions: ETS should be considered an important risk factor for severe dementia syndromes. Avoidance of ETS may reduce the rates of severe dementia syndromes worldwide.Published versio