1,265 research outputs found

    Consumers’ Purchasing Intentions for Vegetable Oil in the Presence of Generic or Specific Information on Genetic Modification

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    In combination with the emergence of genetically modified (GM) food, there has been an urgent call for GM labeling to provide relevant information disclosure. Using data collected in Beijing, China, this study attempts to address the issue of whether different types of information may have distinct impacts on consumers’ stated purchasing decisions. Three types of information are used in this study: one is generic and the other two are linked with two important implications of GM technology—human health and the environment. Results verify that consumers’ purchasing decisions are affected by different types of information through their attitudes and personal characteristics. This finding has potential implications for establishing various GM marketing strategies and information campaigns.China, genetically modified (GM) food, labeling information, probit model, vegetable oil, Agribusiness, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,


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    Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,

    Country-level impact of global recession and China’s stimulus package

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    A dynamic computable general equilibrium model is developed to assess the impact of the recent global recession and the Chinese government’s stimulus package on China’s economic growth. The model is first used to capture the actual sector-level economic growth in 2008 and the possible economic performance in 2009 without the intervention of the Chinese government through its stimulus package. Under this global recession scenario, the GDP growth rate in 2009 falls to 2.9 percent mainly as a result of the sharp drop in exports of manufactured goods, while the agricultural sector is more crisis-resilient. Because export-oriented manufacturing sectors are often import-intensive, the weakened economy is accompanied by a reduction in Chinese firms’ import demand for materials, intermediates, and capital goods. The model also shows that without government intervention, the negative effect of a one-year shock on the Chinese economy would last for many years. Also, over the next five to six years, China is unlikely to replicate its strong economic performance of the past two decades. China’s stimulus package is modeled through increased investment financed by government resources. With additional demand on investment goods, growth in the investment-related production sector is stimulated. Through the cross-sector linkages in a general equilibrium model, the demand for other noncapital goods increases, thus stimulating growth in these sectors. As production of more industrialized sectors starts to grow, so will households’ income and consumption, providing market opportunities for those agricultural and service sectors that mainly produce for the domestic market. Under the stimulus scenario, the Chinese economy is expected to grow 8–10 percent in 2009 and the succeeding years. The growth engine in this case differs from that before 2008: growth is led by domestic demand, while trade still falls significantly in 2009 (instead of the double-digit growth before 2008). Domestic demand-driven stimulus growth creates jobs, and hence it increases income for both urban and rural households. The model is also used to measure the overall gains of the stimulus package by comparing GDP between the two scenarios. Without considering the productivity-enhancing role of public investment as part of the stimulus package (which is important for long-term growth but unlikely to happen in the short run), the cumulative difference of the GDP between the two scenarios over the next seven years is about RMB76 trillion, which is about three times more than the GDP in 2007.China stimulus package, Development strategies, general equilibrium modeling, global financial crisis,

    How prudent are rural households in developing transition economies:

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    Rural households in developing economies frequently use precautionary saving to cope with income risk. Such prudent behavior can be strengthened in transition economies where more risks are typically faced by households during and after reforms. This paper uses a rich panel of rural households in Zhejiang, China, to examine the correlation between income uncertainty and the target ratio of wealth to permanent income as suggested by the buffer-stock model. The empirical results suggest that Chinese rural households hold a significant level of wealth to mitigate the adverse impacts of income risk. Simulation results show that an increase in income risk leads to a sharp increase in household wealth and precautionary saving could drop substantially if income risk is eliminated. The high level of prudence of rural households under economic transition can help us better understand the developments in China, which will have policy implications for both developing and transition countries.buffer-stock model, Income risk, precautionary saving,

    Loss prevention for hog farmers: Insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination

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    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers for the year 2009, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of means of loss prevention and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations on a mixed-process model to obtain the results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong relationship of substitution between quality of vaccine and demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccine significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditure by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios.Biosecurity, hog insurance, loss prevention, vaccine,

    Synthesis, structural studies, and oxidation catalysis of the late-first-row-transition-metal complexes of a 2-pyridylmethyl pendant-armed ethylene cross-bridged cyclam

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    The first 2-pyridylmethyl pendant-armed ethylene cross-bridged cyclam ligand has been synthesized and successfully complexed to Mn²⁺, Fe²⁺, Co²⁺, Ni²⁺, Cu²⁺, and Zn²⁺ cations. X-ray crystal structures were obtained for all six complexes and demonstrate pentadentate binding of the ligand with the requisite cis-V configuration of the cross-bridged cyclam ring in all cases, leaving a potential labile binding site cis to the pyridine donor for interaction of the complex with oxidants and/or substrates. The electronic properties of the complexes were evaluated using solid-state magnetic moment determination and acetonitrile solution electronic spectroscopy, which both agree with the crystal structure determination of high-spin divalent metal complexes in all cases. Cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile revealed reversible redox processes in all but the Ni²⁺ complex, suggesting that catalytic reactivity involving electron-transfer processes is possible for complexes of this ligand. Kinetic studies of the dissociation of the ligand from the copper(II) complex under strongly acidic conditions and elevated temperatures revealed that the pyridine pendant arm actually destabilizes the complex compared to the parent cross-bridged cyclam complex. Screening for oxidation catalysis using hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant for the most biologically relevant Mn²⁺, Fe²⁺, and Cu²⁺ complexes identified the Mn²⁺ complex as a potential mild oxidation catalyst worthy of continued development