119,753 research outputs found

    Enhanced off-center stellar tidal disruptions by supermassive black holes in merging galaxies

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    Off-center stellar tidal disruption flares have been suggested to be a powerful probe of recoiling supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out of galactic centers due to anisotropic gravitational wave radiations. However, off-center tidal flares can also be produced by SMBHs in merging galaxies. In this paper, we computed the tidal flare rates by dual SMBHs in two merging galaxies before the SMBHs become self-gravitationally bounded. We employ an analytical model to calculate the tidal loss-cone feeding rates for both SMBHs, taking into account two-body relaxation of stars, tidal perturbations by the companion galaxy, and chaotic stellar orbits in triaxial gravitational potential. We show that for typical SMBHs with mass 10^7 M_\sun, the loss-cone feeding rates are enhanced by mergers up to \Gamma ~ 10^{-2} yr^{-1}, about two order of magnitude higher than those by single SMBHs in isolated galaxies and about four orders of magnitude higher than those by recoiling SMBHs. The enhancements are mainly due to tidal perturbations by the companion galaxy. We suggest that off-center tidal flares are overwhelmed by those from merging galaxies, making the identification of recoiling SMBHs challenging. Based on the calculated rates, we estimate the relative contributions of tidal flare events by single, binary, and dual SMBH systems during cosmic time. Our calculations show that the off-center tidal disruption flares by un-bound SMBHs in merging galaxies contribute a fraction comparable to that by single SMBHs in isolated galaxies. We conclude that off-center tidal disruptions are powerful tracers of the merging history of galaxies and SMBHs.Comment: 17 pages, 8 figures; Typos are corrected to match the published version in Ap

    Privacy-Preserving Outsourcing of Large-Scale Nonlinear Programming to the Cloud

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    The increasing massive data generated by various sources has given birth to big data analytics. Solving large-scale nonlinear programming problems (NLPs) is one important big data analytics task that has applications in many domains such as transport and logistics. However, NLPs are usually too computationally expensive for resource-constrained users. Fortunately, cloud computing provides an alternative and economical service for resource-constrained users to outsource their computation tasks to the cloud. However, one major concern with outsourcing NLPs is the leakage of user's private information contained in NLP formulations and results. Although much work has been done on privacy-preserving outsourcing of computation tasks, little attention has been paid to NLPs. In this paper, we for the first time investigate secure outsourcing of general large-scale NLPs with nonlinear constraints. A secure and efficient transformation scheme at the user side is proposed to protect user's private information; at the cloud side, generalized reduced gradient method is applied to effectively solve the transformed large-scale NLPs. The proposed protocol is implemented on a cloud computing testbed. Experimental evaluations demonstrate that significant time can be saved for users and the proposed mechanism has the potential for practical use.Comment: Ang Li and Wei Du equally contributed to this work. This work was done when Wei Du was at the University of Arkansas. 2018 EAI International Conference on Security and Privacy in Communication Networks (SecureComm

    Towards Long-endurance Flight: Design and Implementation of a Variable-pitch Gasoline-engine Quadrotor

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    Majority of today's fixed-pitch, electric-power quadrotors have short flight endurance (<< 1 hour) which greatly limits their applications. This paper presents a design methodology for the construction of a long-endurance quadrotor using variable-pitch rotors and a gasoline-engine. The methodology consists of three aspects. Firstly, the rotor blades and gasoline engine are selected as a pair, so that sufficient lift can be comfortably provided by the engine. Secondly, drivetrain and airframe are designed. Major challenges include airframe vibration minimization and power transmission from one engine to four rotors while keeping alternate rotors contra-rotating. Lastly, a PD controller is tuned to facilitate preliminary flight tests. The methodology has been verified by the construction and successful flight of our gasoline quadrotor prototype, which is designed to have a flight time of 2 to 3 hours and a maximum take-off weight of 10 kg.Comment: 6 page

    S-matrix elements for gauge theories with and without implemented constraints

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    We derive an expression for the relation between two scattering transition amplitudes which reflect the same dynamics, but which differ in the description of their initial and final state vectors. In one version, the incident and scattered states are elements of a perturbative Fock space, and solve the eigenvalue problem for the `free' part of the Hamiltonian --- the part that remains after the interactions between particle excitations have been `switched off'. Alternatively, the incident and scattered states may be coherent states that are transforms of these Fock states. In earlier work, we reported on the scattering amplitudes for QED, in which a unitary transformation relates perturbative and non-perturbative sets of incident and scattered states. In this work, we generalize this earlier result to the case of transformations that are not necessarily unitary and that may not have unique inverses. We discuss the implication of this relationship for Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in which the `transformed', non-perturbative states implement constraints, such as Gauss's law.Comment: 8 pages. Invited contribution to Foundation of Physics for an issue honoring Prof. Lawrence Horwitz on his 65th Birthda

    Rotational Perturbations of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Type Brane-World Cosmological Models

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    First order rotational perturbations of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric are considered in the framework of the brane-world cosmological models. A rotation equation, relating the perturbations of the metric tensor to the angular velocity of the matter on the brane is derived under the assumption of slow rotation. The mathematical structure of the rotation equation imposes strong restrictions on the temporal and spatial dependence of the brane matter angular velocity. The study of the integrable cases of the rotation equation leads to three distinct models, which are considered in detail. As a general result we find that, similarly to the general relativistic case, the rotational perturbations decay due to the expansion of the matter on the brane. One of the obtained consistency conditions leads to a particular, purely inflationary brane-world cosmological model, with the cosmological fluid obeying a non-linear barotropic equation of state.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures, REVTEX
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