117,813 research outputs found

    Network tomography based on 1-D projections

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    Network tomography has been regarded as one of the most promising methodologies for performance evaluation and diagnosis of the massive and decentralized Internet. This paper proposes a new estimation approach for solving a class of inverse problems in network tomography, based on marginal distributions of a sequence of one-dimensional linear projections of the observed data. We give a general identifiability result for the proposed method and study the design issue of these one dimensional projections in terms of statistical efficiency. We show that for a simple Gaussian tomography model, there is an optimal set of one-dimensional projections such that the estimator obtained from these projections is asymptotically as efficient as the maximum likelihood estimator based on the joint distribution of the observed data. For practical applications, we carry out simulation studies of the proposed method for two instances of network tomography. The first is for traffic demand tomography using a Gaussian Origin-Destination traffic model with a power relation between its mean and variance, and the second is for network delay tomography where the link delays are to be estimated from the end-to-end path delays. We compare estimators obtained from our method and that obtained from using the joint distribution and other lower dimensional projections, and show that in both cases, the proposed method yields satisfactory results.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/074921707000000238 in the IMS Lecture Notes Monograph Series (http://www.imstat.org/publications/lecnotes.htm) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    A new inflationary Universe scenario with inhomogeneous quantum vacuum

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    We investigate the quantum vacuum and find the fluctuations can lead to the inhomogeneous quantum vacuum. We find that the vacuum fluctuations can significantly influence the cosmological inhomogeneity, which is different from what previously expected. By introducing the modified Green's function, we reach a new inflationary scenario which can explain why the Universe is still expanding without slowing down. We also calculate the tunneling amplitude of the Universe based on the inhomogeneous vacuum. We find that the inhomogeneity can lead to the penetration of the universe over the potential barrier faster than previously thought.Comment: 16 pages, 9 figure

    Joint Network and Gelfand-Pinsker Coding for 3-Receiver Gaussian Broadcast Channels with Receiver Message Side Information

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    The problem of characterizing the capacity region for Gaussian broadcast channels with receiver message side information appears difficult and remains open for N >= 3 receivers. This paper proposes a joint network and Gelfand-Pinsker coding method for 3-receiver cases. Using the method, we establish a unified inner bound on the capacity region of 3-receiver Gaussian broadcast channels under general message side information configuration. The achievability proof of the inner bound uses an idea of joint interference cancelation, where interference is canceled by using both dirty-paper coding at the encoder and successive decoding at some of the decoders. We show that the inner bound is larger than that achieved by state of the art coding schemes. An outer bound is also established and shown to be tight in 46 out of all 64 possible cases.Comment: Author's final version (presented at the 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory [ISIT 2014]

    Video Captioning with Guidance of Multimodal Latent Topics

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    The topic diversity of open-domain videos leads to various vocabularies and linguistic expressions in describing video contents, and therefore, makes the video captioning task even more challenging. In this paper, we propose an unified caption framework, M&M TGM, which mines multimodal topics in unsupervised fashion from data and guides the caption decoder with these topics. Compared to pre-defined topics, the mined multimodal topics are more semantically and visually coherent and can reflect the topic distribution of videos better. We formulate the topic-aware caption generation as a multi-task learning problem, in which we add a parallel task, topic prediction, in addition to the caption task. For the topic prediction task, we use the mined topics as the teacher to train a student topic prediction model, which learns to predict the latent topics from multimodal contents of videos. The topic prediction provides intermediate supervision to the learning process. As for the caption task, we propose a novel topic-aware decoder to generate more accurate and detailed video descriptions with the guidance from latent topics. The entire learning procedure is end-to-end and it optimizes both tasks simultaneously. The results from extensive experiments conducted on the MSR-VTT and Youtube2Text datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed model. M&M TGM not only outperforms prior state-of-the-art methods on multiple evaluation metrics and on both benchmark datasets, but also achieves better generalization ability.Comment: ACM Multimedia 201