91 research outputs found

    Optimization on fixed low latency implementation of GBT protocol in FPGA

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    In the upgrade of ATLAS experiment, the front-end electronics components are subjected to a large radiation background. Meanwhile high speed optical links are required for the data transmission between the on-detector and off-detector electronics. The GBT architecture and the Versatile Link (VL) project are designed by CERN to support the 4.8 Gbps line rate bidirectional high-speed data transmission which is called GBT link. In the ATLAS upgrade, besides the link with on-detector, the GBT link is also used between different off-detector systems. The GBTX ASIC is designed for the on-detector front-end, correspondingly for the off-detector electronics, the GBT architecture is implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). CERN launches the GBT-FPGA project to provide examples in different types of FPGA. In the ATLAS upgrade framework, the Front-End LInk eXchange (FELIX) system is used to interface the front-end electronics of several ATLAS subsystems. The GBT link is used between them, to transfer the detector data and the timing, trigger, control and monitoring information. The trigger signal distributed in the down-link from FELIX to the front-end requires a fixed and low latency. In this paper, several optimizations on the GBT-FPGA IP core are introduced, to achieve a lower fixed latency. For FELIX, a common firmware will be used to interface different front-ends with support of both GBT modes: the forward error correction mode and the wide mode. The modified GBT-FPGA core has the ability to switch between the GBT modes without FPGA reprogramming. The system clock distribution of the multi-channel FELIX firmware is also discussed in this paper

    Effect of dietary Ginkgo biloba leaf on the growth performance and nonspecific immunity of red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii

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    This trial investigated the effect of dietary Ginkgo biloba leaf (GBL) on the growth performance and nonspecific immunity of red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. 180 Crayfishes were randomly divided into three groups. One group was fed with basic diet, whereas the other two groups were fed with diets containing 1% and 3% GBL. After 32 days of feeding, GBL addition tended to increase the body weight gain rate compared with control. In 3% GBL group, the bodyweight gain rate of male crayfish was higher than that of female crayfish. While female crayfish were advantageous in terms of meat yield. Liver-related indexes were influenced by GBL addition and 3% GBL could reduce glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase as well as total cholesterol in male crayfish, showing its function in liver protection. Moreover, GBL addition effects on liver protection was better in male crayfish than female crayfish

    Construction of a High-Density Linkage Map and QTL Fine Mapping for Growth- and Sex-Related Traits in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

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    A high-density genetic linkage map is of particular importance in the fine mapping for important economic traits and whole genome assembly in aquaculture species. The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), a species native to North America, is one of the most important commercial freshwater fish in the world. Outside of the United States, China has become the major producer and consumer of channel catfish after experiencing rapid development in the past three decades. In this study, based on restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), a high-density genetic linkage map of channel catfish was constructed by using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a F1 family composed of 156 offspring and their two parental individuals. A total of 4,768 SNPs were assigned to 29 linkage groups (LGs), and the length of the linkage map reached 2,480.25 centiMorgans (cM) with an average distance of 0.55 cM between loci. Based on this genetic linkage map, 223 genomic scaffolds were anchored to the 29 LGs of channel catfish, and a total length of 704.66 Mb was assembled. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and genome-wide association analysis identified 10 QTLs of sex-related and six QTLs of growth-related traits at LG17 and LG28, respectively. Candidate genes associated with sex dimorphism, including spata2, spata5, sf3, zbtb38, and fox, were identified within QTL intervals on the LG17. A sex-linked marker with simple sequence repeats (SSR) in zbtb38 gene of the LG17 was validated for practical verification of sex in the channel catfish. Thus, the LG17 was considered as a sex-related LG. Potential growth-related genes were also identified, including important regulators such as megf9, npffr1, and gas1. In a word, we constructed the high-density genetic linkage map and developed the sex-linked marker in channel catfish, which are important genetic resources for future marker-assisted selection (MAS) of this economically important teleost

    A search for resonances decaying into a Higgs boson and a new particle X in the XH‚Üíqqbb final state with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for heavy resonances decaying into a Higgs boson (HH) and a new particle (XX) is reported, utilizing 36.1 fb‚ąí1^{-1} of proton-proton collision data at s=\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV collected during 2015 and 2016 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The particle XX is assumed to decay to a pair of light quarks, and the fully hadronic final state XH‚ÜíqqňČ‚Ä≤bbňČXH \rightarrow q\bar q'b\bar b is analysed. The search considers the regime of high XHXH resonance masses, where the XX and HH bosons are both highly Lorentz-boosted and are each reconstructed using a single jet with large radius parameter. A two-dimensional phase space of XHXH mass versus XX mass is scanned for evidence of a signal, over a range of XHXH resonance mass values between 1 TeV and 4 TeV, and for XX particles with masses from 50 GeV to 1000 GeV. All search results are consistent with the expectations for the background due to Standard Model processes, and 95% CL upper limits are set, as a function of XHXH and XX masses, on the production cross-section of the XH‚ÜíqqňČ‚Ä≤bbňČXH\rightarrow q\bar q'b\bar b resonance

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in ‚ąös = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb‚ąí1 of proton‚Äďproton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at ‚ąös = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    ATLAS Run 1 searches for direct pair production of third-generation squarks at the Large Hadron Collider