1,198 research outputs found

    Effect of egg turning and incubation time on carbonic anhydrase gene expression in the blastoderm of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica)

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    (1) The gene expression of carbonic anhydrase, a key enzyme for the production sub-embryonic fluid (SEF), was assessed in turned and unturned eggs of the Japanese quail. The plasma membrane-associated isoforms CA IV, CAIX, CA XII, CA XIV, and the cytoplasmic isoform CA II, were investigated in the extra-embryonic tissue of the blastoderm and in embryonic blood. (2) Eggs were incubated at 37.6C, c. 60% R.H., and turned hourly (90 ) or left unturned. From 48 to 96 hours of incubation mRNA was extracted from blastoderm tissue, reverse-transcribed to cDNA and quantified by real-time qPCR using gene-specific primers. Blood collected at 96h was processed identically. (3) Blastoderm CAIV gene expression increased with the period of incubation only in turned eggs, with maxima at 84 and 96h of incubation. Only very low levels were found in blood. (4) Blastoderm CA II gene expression was greatest at 48 and 54h of incubation, subsequently declining to much lower levels and una ected by turning. Blood CA II gene expression was about 25-fold greater than that in the blastoderm. (5) The expression of CA IX in the blastoderm was the highest of all isoforms, yet unaffected by turning. CA XII did not amplify and CA XIV was present at unquantifiable low levels. (6) It is concluded that solely gene expression for CA IV is sensitive to egg turning, and that increased CA IV gene expression could account for the additional SEF mass found at 84-96h of incubation. in embryos of turned eggs

    A mathematical model of tumour & blood pHe regulation: The HCO-3/CO2 buffering system

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    Malignant tumours are characterised by a low, acidic extracellular pH (pHe) which facilitates invasion and metastasis. Previous research has proposed the potential benefits of manipulating systemic pHe, and recent experiments have highlighted the potential for buffer therapy to raise tumour pHe, prevent metastases, and prolong survival in laboratory mice. To examine the physiological regulation of tumour buffering and investigate how perturbations of the buffering system (via metabolic/respiratory disorders or changes in parameters) can alter tumour and blood pHe, we develop a simple compartmentalised ordinary differential equation model of pHe regulation by the View the MathML source buffering system. An approximate analytical solution is constructed and used to carry out a sensitivity analysis, where we identify key parameters that regulate tumour pHe in both humans and mice. From this analysis, we suggest promising alternative and combination therapies, and identify specific patient groups which may show an enhanced response to buffer therapy. In addition, numerical simulations are performed, validating the model against well-known metabolic/respiratory disorders and predicting how these disorders could change tumour pHe

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+μ+νW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and WμνW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13

    Search for squarks and gluinos in events with isolated leptons, jets and missing transverse momentum at s√=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector