24 research outputs found

    Polyethylenimine-Induced Alterations of Red Blood Cells and Their Recognition by the Complement System and Macrophages

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    In practical applications, biomedical materials introduced in vivo may interact with various host cells and/or biomacromolecules and alter their physiological characteristics. Biomaterial-altered cells and/or biomacromolecules may be recognized as “non-self” by the host immune system and may consequently cause further immune responses. In the present work, the gene carrier material branched polyethylenimine (1.8 kDa) (BPEI-1.8k) induced a series of alterations of human red blood cells (RBCs), such as a morphological transition from biconcave disks to spheroechinocytes, vesiculation, a size decrease, a change in surface charge from negative to positive, a cell density reduction, membrane oxidation, and PS externalization. Furthermore, BPEI-1.8k-treated RBCs caused autologous complement activation and were recognized by autologous macrophages. This implies that the biomedical material BPEI-1.8k changed the identity of the RBCs, leading to their recognition by the autologous immune system. This study provides novel insights for the biocompatibility evaluation and clinical application of biomedical materials

    Diagrammatic presentation of the experimental design.

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    <p>The circular pollen donor N12-1 plot with radius 5m was planted at the center of experiment field. Pollen recipient dwarf male-sterile wheat (DMSW) was grown at eight compass directions. The radius of concentric circle of the recipient DMSW was 50 m.</p

    Estimated regression curves showing the decrease of transgene flow frequencies from genetically modified (GM) wheat lines to dwarf male-sterile wheat (DMSW) with the increasing distance from the pollen source in eight compass sectors.

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    <p>Estimated regression curves showing the decrease of transgene flow frequencies from genetically modified (GM) wheat lines to dwarf male-sterile wheat (DMSW) with the increasing distance from the pollen source in eight compass sectors.</p

    PCR detection of the <i>NIb8</i> gene in dwarf male-sterile wheat (DMSW) seeding.

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    <p>M, DNA marker; lane1, positive control (N12-1); lanes 2–5, genetically modified (GM) seedling with the <i>NIb8</i> gene; lanes 6–8, nongenetically modified (non-GM) seedling; lane 9, negative control (H<sub>2</sub>O).</p

    The exponential decay models for pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat and the corresponding determination coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) in eight compass sectors.

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    <p>The exponential decay models for pollen and gene flow of transgenic wheat and the corresponding determination coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) in eight compass sectors.</p

    Injectable Fullerenol/Alginate Hydrogel for Suppression of Oxidative Stress Damage in Brown Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Cardiac Repair

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    Stem cell implantation strategy has exhibited potential to treat the myocardial infarction (MI), however, the low retention and survival limit their applications due to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) microenvironment after MI. In this study, the fullerenol nanoparticles are introduced into alginate hydrogel to create an injectable cell delivery vehicle with antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the prepared hydrogels exhibit excellent injectable and mechanical strength. In addition, the fullerenol/alginate hydrogel can effectively scavenge the superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Based on these results, the biological behaviors of brown adipose-derived stem cells (BADSCs) seeded in fullerenol/alginate hydrogel were investigated in the presence of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. Results suggest that the fullerenol/alginate hydrogels have no cytotoxicity effects on BADSCs. Moreover, they can suppress the oxidative stress damage of BADSCs and improve their survival capacity under ROS microenvironment via activating the ERK and p38 pathways while inhibiting JNK pathway. Further, the addition of fullerenol can improve the cardiomyogenic differentiation of BADSCs even under ROS microenvironment. To assess its therapeutic effects <i>in vivo</i>, the fullerenol/alginate hydrogel loaded with BADSCs were implanted in the MI area in rats. Results suggest that the fullerenol/alginate hydrogel can effectively decrease ROS level in MI zone, improve the retention and survival of implanted BADSCs, and induce angiogenesis, which in turn promote cardiac functional recovery. Therefore, the fullerenol/alginate hydrogel can act as injectable cell delivery vehicles for cardiac repair

    Confocal laser microscopic images of immunofluorescence analysis of differentiation of transplanted ADSCs in vivo (n = 12/group).

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    <p>(A and B) Representative images of differentiated cardiomyocytes-like cells using anti-cardiac troponin-I (green, cTnI) revealed significant augmentation of enhanced mRFP (red)/cTnI double positive cardiomyocyte-like cells (white arrow) in Ex-ADSCs group (B) compared with ADSCs group (A). (C) Quantitative analysis of the ratio of differentiated cardiomyocytes-like cells. (D and E) Representative images of differentiated vessel specific cells using anti-α-SMA (green) revealed significant enhancement of mRFP (red)/α-SMA double positive vessel-specific cells (white arrow) in Ex-ADSCs group (E) compared with ADSCs group(D). (F) Quantitative analysis of the ratio of differentiated vessel specific cells. *<i>p</i><0.05. Inset shows the corresponding boxed area magnified.</p

    Transplantation of Exendin-4 pretreated ADSCs decrease apoptosis, fibrosis, and promote angiogenesis.

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    <p>(A) Representative TUNEL staining images and quantitative analysis in the peri-infarcted and remote zone of heart sections from each group (n = 4/group). Apoptotic nuclei were identified as TUNEL positive (green). Total nuclei were counterstained by DAPI (blue). Apoptotic cells nuclei were considered as apoptotic cardiomyocytes (white arrow). Scale bars = 50 µm. (B) Representative images and quantitative analysis of fibrotic area in different groups by Masson's trichrome staining (n = 12/group). Red represented viable myocardium, blue represented fibrosis. Scale bars = 200 µm. (C) Representative images and quantitative analysis of vessels intensity using anti-vWF antibody at the border zone of MI in each group by immunohistochemistry (n = 12/group). Scale bars = 100 µm. Statistical differences (<i>p</i><0.05) are indicated from PBS (*) and ADSCs (#).</p
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