460 research outputs found

    Cultural Influences on the Neural Correlate of Moral Decision Making Processes

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    This study compares the neural substrate of moral decision making processes between Korean and American participants. By comparison with Americans, Korean participants showed increased activity in the right putamen associated with socio-intuitive processes and right superior frontal gyrus associated with cognitive control processes under a moral-personal condition, and in the right postcentral sulcus associated with mental calculation in familiar contexts under a moral-impersonal condition. On the other hand, American participants showed a significantly higher degree of activity in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) associated with conflict resolution under the moral-personal condition, and in the right medial frontal gyrus (MFG) associated with simple cognitive branching in non-familiar contexts under the moral-impersonal condition when a more lenient threshold was applied, than Korean participants. These findings support the ideas of the interactions between the cultural background, education, and brain development, proposed in the field of cultural psychology and educational psychology. The study introduces educational implications relevant to moral psychologists and educators

    Attainable and Relevant Moral Exemplars Are More Effective than Extraordinary Exemplars in Promoting Voluntary Service Engagement

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    The present study aimed to develop effective moral educational interventions based on social psychology by using stories of moral exemplars. We tested whether motivation to engage in voluntary service as a form of moral behavior was better promoted by attainable and relevant exemplars or by unattainable and irrelevant exemplars. First, experiment 1, conducted in a lab, showed that stories of attainable exemplars more effectively promoted voluntary service activity engagement among undergraduate students compared with stories of unattainable exemplars and non-moral stories. Second, experiment 2, a middle school classroom-level experiment with a quasi-experimental design, demonstrated that peer exemplars, who are perceived to be attainable and relevant to students, better promoted service engagement compared with historic figures in moral education classes

    Moral Growth Mindset is Associated with Change in Voluntary Service Engagement

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    Incremental implicit theories are associated with a belief regarding it is possible to improve one’s intelligence or ability through efforts. Previous studies have demonstrated that incremental implicit theories contributed to better academic achievement and positive youth development. Our study aimed to examine whether incremental implicit theories of morality significantly influenced change in students’ engagement in voluntary service activities. In our study, 54 Korean college students for Study 1 and 180 Korean 8th graders for Study 2 were recruited to conduct two two-wave studies. We surveyed participants’ implicit theories of morality and participation in voluntary service activities. The effect of implicit theories of morality on change in service engagement was analyzed through regression analysis. In Study 1, the moral growth mindset significantly moderated longitudinal change in service engagement. In Study 2, the moral growth mindset significantly influenced engagement in art-related activities, while it significantly moderated change in engagement in youth-related activities

    Influence of the Cortical Midline Structures on Moral Emotion and Motivation in Moral Decision-Making

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    The present study aims to examine the relationship between the cortical midline structures (CMS), which have been regarded to be associated with selfhood, and moral decision making processes at the neural level. Traditional moral psychological studies have suggested the role of moral self as the moderator of moral cognition, so activity of moral self would present at the neural level. The present study examined the interaction between the CMS and other moral-related regions by conducting psycho-physiological interaction analysis of functional images acquired while 16 subjects were solving moral dilemmas. Furthermore, we performed Granger causality analysis to demonstrate the direction of influences between activities in the regions in moral decision-making. We first demonstrate there are significant positive interactions between two central CMS seed regions—i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)—and brain regions associated with moral functioning including the cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula (AI); on the other hand, the posterior insula (PI) showed significant negative interaction with the seed regions. Second, several significant Granger causality was found from CMS to insula regions particularly under the moral-personal condition. Furthermore, significant dominant influence from the AI to PI was reported. Moral psychological implications of these findings are discussed. The present study demonstrated the significant interaction and influence between the CMS and morality-related regions while subject were solving moral dilemmas. Given that, activity in the CMS is significantly involved in human moral functioning

    An Integrative Model of Moral Reasoning and Moral Intuition: Implications for Moral Education

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    2012This article discusses integrative moral psychology, including moral intuition and moral deliberation, to explain the mechanisms of actual moral behaviors. To this end, we briefly review current models in the field of moral psychology dealing with moral intuition and moral reasoning, after which we present an integrative model based on these earlier ones. Our model focuses on a moral intuitive process, a process of reflection on initial emotional responses, moral reasoning, and moral introspection. We critically examine and discuss recent research from the rapidly growing fields of neuroscience and the natural sciences to strengthen and support this model. In closing, we explore the educational implications of our model and possible educational methods to promote moral development

    GPS-GLASS: Learning Nighttime Semantic Segmentation Using Daytime Video and GPS data

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    Semantic segmentation for autonomous driving should be robust against various in-the-wild environments. Nighttime semantic segmentation is especially challenging due to a lack of annotated nighttime images and a large domain gap from daytime images with sufficient annotation. In this paper, we propose a novel GPS-based training framework for nighttime semantic segmentation. Given GPS-aligned pairs of daytime and nighttime images, we perform cross-domain correspondence matching to obtain pixel-level pseudo supervision. Moreover, we conduct flow estimation between daytime video frames and apply GPS-based scaling to acquire another pixel-level pseudo supervision. Using these pseudo supervisions with a confidence map, we train a nighttime semantic segmentation network without any annotation from nighttime images. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on several nighttime semantic segmentation datasets. Our source code is available at https://github.com/jimmy9704/GPS-GLASS.Comment: ICCVW 202

    Understanding Moral Psychology and Moral Education through the Lens of the Philosophy of Science

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    2009This article focuses on discussion concerning moral psychology and moral education from the philosophy of science standpoint. The theoretical model of Lakatos' program in the field of the philosophy of science is introduced and the structure of moral psychology and moral education is analyzed and evaluated by using Lakatos' scientific research program as a theoretical framework. The article begins with a review of the theoretical background of the philosophy of science, then continues by analyzing and evaluating the structure of moral psychology by using a theoretical framework from the philosophy of science, and then considers the case of moral education. The authors conclude with a brief description of significant directions for the introduction of the natural sciences, such as neuroscience and sociobiology, into moral psychology and moral education

    Excess mortality during the Coronavirus disease pandemic in Korea

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    Background Although the ongoing epidemics of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have affected the mortality trend of the nation, the national level assessment of excess mortality (changes in overall mortality in the entire population) is still scarce in Korea. Therefore, this study evaluated the excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea using the certified mortality data. Methods Monthly mortality and population data from January 2013 to June 2022 was obtained from the National Health Insurance Service database and Statistics Korea. A quasi-Poisson interrupted time-series model adjusted for age structure, population, seasonality, and long-term trends was used to estimate the counterfactual projections (expected) of mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to June 2022). The absolute difference (observed—expected) and ratio (observed / expected) of mortality were calculated. Stratified analysis based on pandemic years (years 2020, 2021, and 2022), sex, and age groups (aged 0–4, 5–19, 20–64, and ≥ 65 years) were conducted. Results An 8.7% increase in mortality was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic [absolute difference: 61,277 persons; ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.087 (1.066, 1.107)]. The gap between observed and estimated mortality became wider with continuation of the pandemic [ratio (95% CI), year 2020: 1.021 (1.003, 1.040); year 2021: 1.060 (1.039, 1.080), year 2022: 1.244 (1.219, 1.270)]. Although excess mortality across sex was similar, the adult [aged 20–64, ratio (95% CI): 1.059 (1.043, 1.076)] and elderly [aged 65-, ratio (95% CI): 1.098 (1.062, 1.135)] population showed increased excess mortality during the pandemic. Conclusions Despite Korea's successful quarantine policy response, the continued epidemic has led to an excess mortality. The estimated mortality exceeded the number of deaths from COVID-19 infection. Excess mortality should be monitored to estimate the overall impact of the pandemic on a nation.This research was supported by the research fund of Chungnam National University. The funding source had no role in the study design, collection, analysis, interpretation of data, writing of the report, or the decision to submit for publicatio
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