8,410 research outputs found

    Resolving the UK construction skills crisis : a critical perspective on the research and policy agenda

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    The ongoing skills crisis in the UK construction industry has constrained the productive capacity of the industry. Past research and skills policies have largely failed to develop an understanding of the realities of the skills crisis at the grassroots level. Solutions offered by researchers and policy makers have previously had little demonstrable impact in addressing skills concerns. Much of these policies seems disconnected from the realities experienced by employers and by those working in the industry. A critical perspective on resolving the skills crisis is offered. A set of mutually reinforcing research and policy initiatives are proposed, including the need for researchers and policy makers to move away from the conventionally national approach in addressing the skills problem and to engage in genuine, joined-up thinking that meets the needs of local regions. Furthermore, employers and employees are called to be reflective practitioners in their participation of the skills development agenda. Adopting these recommendations could overcome many shortcomings in research and policy that have hitherto done little to combat the construction skills crisis.Skills shortages, critical perspective, bottom-up approach, labour market, research,

    Scaling laws for molecular communication

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    In this paper, we investigate information-theoretic scaling laws, independent from communication strategies, for point-to-point molecular communication, where it sends/receives information-encoded molecules between nanomachines. Since the Shannon capacity for this is still an open problem, we first derive an asymptotic order in a single coordinate, i.e., i) scaling time with constant number of molecules mm and ii) scaling molecules with constant time tt. For a single coordinate case, we show that the asymptotic scaling is logarithmic in either coordinate, i.e., Θ(logt)\Theta(\log t) and Θ(logm)\Theta(\log m), respectively. We also study asymptotic behavior of scaling in both time and molecules and show that, if molecules and time are proportional to each other, then the asymptotic scaling is linear, i.e., Θ(t)=Θ(m)\Theta(t)=\Theta(m).Comment: Accepted for publication in the 2014 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theor

    Estimation of fractal dimension for a class of Non-Gaussian stationary processes and fields

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    We present the asymptotic distribution theory for a class of increment-based estimators of the fractal dimension of a random field of the form g{X(t)}, where g:R\to R is an unknown smooth function and X(t) is a real-valued stationary Gaussian field on R^d, d=1 or 2, whose covariance function obeys a power law at the origin. The relevant theoretical framework here is ``fixed domain'' (or ``infill'') asymptotics. Surprisingly, the limit theory in this non-Gaussian case is somewhat richer than in the Gaussian case (the latter is recovered when g is affine), in part because estimators of the type considered may have an asymptotic variance which is random in the limit. Broadly, when g is smooth and nonaffine, three types of limit distributions can arise, types (i), (ii) and (iii), say. Each type can be represented as a random integral. More specifically, type (i) can be represented as the integral of a certain random function with respect to Lebesgue measure; type (ii) can be represented as the integral of a second random functio


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    This thesis investigates the compression of computer-generated transmission holograms through lossless schemes such as the Burrows-Wheeler compression scheme (BWCS). Ever since Gabor’s discovery of holography, much research have been done to improve the record­ ing and viewing of holograms into more convenient uses such as video viewing. However, the compression of holograms where recording is performed from virtual scenes has not received much attention. Phase-shift digital holograms, on the other hand, have received more attention due to their practical application in object recognition, imaging, and video sequencing of phys­ ical objects. This study is performed for virtually recorded computer-generated holograms in order to understand compression factors in virtually recorded holograms. We also investigate application of lossless compression schemes to holograms with reduced precision for the in­ tensity and phase values. The overall objective is to explore the factors that affect effective compression of virtual holograms. As a result, this work can be used to assist in the design­ ing of better compression algorithms for applications such as virtual object simulations, video gaming application, and holographic video viewing

    An Analytical Model Of Audits In Disclosure Of Pro Forma Earnings

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    Firms have discretion on financial reporting under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles or GAAP. The proliferation in recent years of earnings metrics that deviate from GAAP figures confounds investors' ability to compare firm financial performance. Non-GAAP (or pro forma) figures usually do not include certain balance sheet or income statement items that are required under GAAP. Regulators and accounting standard-setting body are concerned that pro forma financial measures have been used by management to mislead investors by overstating or smoothing earnings or to meet Wall Street earnings expectations. On the other hand, management asserts that by excluding certain nonrecurring and noncash items, pro forma earnings are more relevant in measuring firm performance. Indeed, prior empirical studies provide evidence that certain pro forma measures may have incremental information content over GAAP earnings. Pro forma earnings are typically unaudited and the quality of disclosures accompanying such measures varies across firms. This paper develops an analytical (mathematical) model to examine whether firms will exhibit higher credibility through auditor selection when disclosing pro forma earnings. This study extends prior empirical literature by providing an analytical perspective on the importance of attestation performed by auditors regarding pro forma earnings. The model in this study suggests that managers who possess superior information than shareholders in an asymmetric information setting and expect high future earnings are more likely to engage large auditors when disclosing pro forma earnings. As such, the model may explain the voluntary disclosure of accounting information by managers in capital markets