72 research outputs found

    Time-Reversal Generation of Rogue Waves

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    The formation of extreme localizations in nonlinear dispersive media can be explained and described within the framework of nonlinear evolution equations, such as the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation (NLS). Within the class of exact NLS breather solutions on finite background, which describe the modulational instability of monochromatic wave trains, the hierarchy of both in time and space localized rational solutions are considered to be appropriate prototypes to model rogue wave dynamics. Here, we use the time-reversal invariance of the NLS to propose and experimentally demonstrate a new approach to construct strongly nonlinear localized waves focused both in time and space. The potential areas of applications of this time-reversal approach range from remote sensing to motivated analogous experimental analysis in other nonlinear dispersive media, such as optics, Bose-Einstein condensates and plasma, where the wave motion dynamics is governed by the NLS

    Theoretical and experimental evidence of non-symmetric doubly localized rogue waves

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    We present determinant expressions for vector rogue wave solutions of the Manakov system, a two-component coupled nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation. As special case, we generate a family of exact and non-symmetric rogue wave solutions of the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation up to third-order, localized in both space and time. The derived non-symmetric doubly-localized second-order solution is generated experimentally in a water wave flume for deep-water conditions. Experimental results, confirming the characteristic non-symmetric pattern of the solution, are in very good agreement with theory as well as with numerical simulations, based on the modified nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation, known to model accurately the dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave packets in deep-water.Comment: 15 pages, 7 figures, accepted by Proceedings of the Royal Society

    Nonlinear spectral analysis of Peregrine solitons observed in optics and in hydrodynamic experiments

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    The data recorded in optical fiber [1] and in hydrodynamic [2] experiments reported the pioneering observation of nonlinear waves with spatiotemporal localization similar to the Peregrine soliton are examined by using nonlinear spectral analysis. Our approach is based on the integrable nature of the one-dimensional focusing nonlinear Schrodinger equation (1D-NLSE) that governs at leading order the propagation of the optical and hydrodynamic waves in the two experiments. Nonlinear spectral analysis provides certain spectral portraits of the analyzed structures that are composed of bands lying in the complex plane. The spectral portraits can be interpreted within the framework of the so-called finite gap theory (or periodic inverse scattering transform). In particular, the number N of bands composing the nonlinear spectrum determines the genus g = N - 1 of the solution that can be viewed as a measure of complexity of the space-time evolution of the considered solution. Within this setting the ideal, rational Peregrine soliton represents a special, degenerate genus 2 solution. While the fitting procedures employed in [1] and [2] show that the experimentally observed structures are quite well approximated by the Peregrine solitons, nonlinear spectral analysis of the breathers observed both in the optical fiber and in the water tank experiments reveals that they exhibit spectral portraits associated with more general, genus 4 finite-gap NLSE solutions. Moreover, the nonlinear spectral analysis shows that the nonlinear spectrum of the breathers observed in the experiments slowly changes with the propagation distance, thus confirming the influence of unavoidable perturbative higher order effects or dissipation in the experiments

    Predicting ocean rogue waves from point measurements: An experimental study for unidirectional waves

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    Rogue waves are strong localizations of the wave field that can develop in different branches of physics and engineering, such as water or electromagnetic waves. Here, we experimentally quantify the prediction potentials of a comprehensive rogue-wave reduced-order precursor tool that has been recently developed to predict extreme events due to spatially localized modulation instability. The laboratory tests have been conducted in two different water wave facilities and they involve unidirectional water waves; in both cases we show that the deterministic and spontaneous emergence of extreme events is well predicted through the reported scheme. Due to the interdisciplinary character of the approach, similar studies may be motivated in other nonlinear dispersive media, such as nonlinear optics, plasma, and solids, governed by similar equations, allowing the early stage of extreme wave detection.United States. Office of Naval Research (Grant N00014-15-1-2381)United States. Army Research Office (Grant W911NF-17-1-0306

    On the formation of coastal rogue waves in water of variable depth

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    Wave transformation is an intrinsic dynamic process in coastal areas. An essential part of this process is the variation of water depth, which plays a dominant role in the propagation features of water waves, including a change in wave amplitude during shoaling and de-shoaling, breaking, celerity variation, refraction and diffraction processes. Fundamental theoretical studies have revolved around the development of analytical frameworks to accurately describe such shoaling processes and wave group hydrodynamics in the transition between deep- and shallow-water conditions since the 1970s. Very recent pioneering experimental studies in state-of-the-art water wave facilities provided proof of concept validations and improved understanding of the formed extreme waves’ physical characteristics and statistics in variable water depth. This review recaps the related most significant theoretical developments and groundbreaking experimental advances, which have particularly thrived over the last decade

    Stabilization of uni-directional water-wave trains over an uneven bottom

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    We study the evolution of nonlinear surface gravity water-wave packets developing from modulational instability over an uneven bottom. A nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation (NLSE) with coefficients varying in space along propagation is used as a reference model. Based on a low-dimensional approximation obtained by considering only three complex harmonic modes, we discuss how to stabilize a one-dimensional pattern in the form of train of large peaks sitting on a background and propagating over a significant distance. Our approach is based on a gradual depth variation, while its conceptual framework is the theory of autoresonance in nonlinear systems and leads to a quasi-frozen state. Three main stages are identified: amplification from small sideband amplitudes, separatrix crossing, and adiabatic conversion to orbits oscillating around an elliptic fixed point. Analytical estimates on the three stages are obtained from the low-dimensional approximation and validated by NLSE simulations. Our result will contribute to understand dynamical stabilization of nonlinear wave packets and the persistence of large undulatory events in hydrodynamics and other nonlinear dispersive media.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figure

    Phase-suppressed hydrodynamics of solitons on constant-background plane wave

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    Soliton and breather solutions of the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation (NLSE) are known to model localized structures in nonlinear dispersive media such as on the water surface. One of the conditions for an accurate propagation of such exact solutions is the proper generation of the exact initial phase-shift profile in the carrier wave, as defined by the NLSE envelope at a specific time or location. Here, we show experimentally the significance of such initial exact phase excitation during the hydrodynamic propagation of localized envelope solitons and breathers, which modulate a plane wave of constant amplitude (finite background). Using the example of stationary black solitons in intermediate water depth and pulsating Peregrine breathers in deep-water, we show how these localized envelopes disintegrate while they evolve over a long propagation distance when the initial phase shift is zero. By setting the envelope phases to zero, the dark solitons will disintegrate into two gray-type solitons and dispersive elements. In the case of the doubly-localized Peregrine breather the maximal amplification is considerably retarded; however locally, the shape of the maximal focused wave measured together with the respective signature phase-shift are almost identical to the exact analytical Peregrine characterization at its maximal compression location. The experiments, conducted in two large-scale shallow-water as well as deep-water wave facilities, are in very good agreement with NLSE simulations for all cases.Comment: (14 pages, 12 figures

    Up-Net: a generic deep learning-based time stepper for parameterized spatio-temporal dynamics

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    In the age of big data availability, data-driven techniques have been proposed recently to compute the time evolution of spatio-temporal dynamics. Depending on the required a priori knowledge about the underlying processes, a spectrum of black-box end-to-end learning approaches, physics-informed neural networks, and data-informed discrepancy modeling approaches can be identified. In this work, we propose a purely data-driven approach that uses fully convolutional neural networks to learn spatio-temporal dynamics directly from parameterized datasets of linear spatio-temporal processes. The parameterization allows for data fusion of field quantities, domain shapes, and boundary conditions in the proposed Up-Net architecture. Multi-domain Up-Net models, therefore, can generalize to different scenes, initial conditions, domain shapes, and domain sizes without requiring re-training or physical priors. Numerical experiments conducted on a universal and two-dimensional wave equation and the transient heat equation for validation purposes show that the proposed Up-Net outperforms classical U-Net and conventional encoder–decoder architectures of the same complexity. Owing to the scene parameterization, the Up-Net models learn to predict refraction and reflections arising from domain inhomogeneities and boundaries. Generalization properties of the model outside the physical training parameter distributions and for unseen domain shapes are analyzed. The deep learning flow map models are employed for long-term predictions in a recursive time-stepping scheme, indicating the potential for data-driven forecasting tasks. This work is accompanied by an open-sourced code

    Stabilization of unsteady nonlinear waves by phase space manipulation

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    We introduce a dynamic stabilization scheme universally applicable to unidirectional nonlinear coherent waves. By abruptly changing the waveguiding properties, the breathing of wave packets subject to modulation instability can be stabilized as a result of the abrupt expansion a homoclinic orbit and its fall into an elliptic fixed point (center). We apply this concept to the nonlinear Schr\"odinger equation framework and show that an Akhmediev breather envelope, which is at the core of Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou recurrence and extreme wave events, can be frozen into a steady periodic (dnoidal) wave by a suitable variation of a single external physical parameter. We experimentally demonstrate this general approach in the particular case of surface gravity water waves propagating in a wave flume with an abrupt bathymetry change. Our results highlight the influence of topography and waveguide properties on the lifetime of nonlinear waves and confirm the possibility to control them.Comment: 6 pages, 3 figures (main text); 8 pages, 8 figures (supplemental material
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