93 research outputs found

    Occurrence and Definitions of Intra and Postoperative Complications Related to Laparoscopy in Equids: A Scoping Review

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    SIMPLE SUMMARY: Laparoscopy and laparoscopic-assisted procedures in equines are nowadays common procedures with several advantages compared to laparotomy. However, despite the numerous benefits of minimally invasive surgery, there can be surgical complications which could have important welfare and economic consequences. Nevertheless, standard definitions of intra and postoperative complications are rarely reported and there is a lack of standard criteria to define and classify complications, limiting comparison of complication rates between studies. Thus, there is a need for implementation of rigorous criteria for defining complications and for greater numbers of research study with high quality of evidence. Adoption of classification systems and standard definitions would help surgeons to have a complete picture of the efficacy of a procedure or treatment and it is also essential to allow comparisons between studies, centers or time periods. ABSTRACT: Laparoscopy is a common approach in equine surgery and has the advantage of improved visibility and diagnostic accuracy, decreased morbidity and hospitalization time. However, despite the numerous benefits, there can be intraoperative and postoperative complications which could have important welfare and economic consequences. The aim of this study was to perform a scoping review to identify current evidence on the occurrence, definition and classification of intra and postoperative complications in equine laparoscopy. A scoping review was conducted in scientific databases. Peer-reviewed scientific articles in the English language on laparoscopy in equids between 1992 and 2022 were included. Data on the study method, sample size, surgical procedure, intra and postoperative complications were extracted and charted. One hundred sixty-four articles met the final inclusion criteria. A definition of “intraoperative complication” was given in one study. Difference between “minor” or “major” intraoperative complications were reported in 12 articles and between “minor” or “major” postoperative complications in 22 articles. A total of 22 intraoperative and 34 postoperative complications were described. The most reported intraoperative complication was hemorrhage from ovary or mesovary (12.7%), while the most reported postoperative complications were incisional complications (64.2%) and postoperative pain (32.7%). There is a need for implementation of criteria for defining complications. The adoption of classification systems and standard definitions would help surgeons to make decisions about the most appropriate treatment, and it is also essential to allow comparisons between research results

    Oncolytic Adenoviral Vector-Mediated Expression of an Anti-PD-L1-scFv Improves Anti-Tumoral Efficacy in a Melanoma Mouse Model

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    Oncolytic virotherapy is an emerging therapeutic approach based on replication-competent viruses able to selectively infect and destroy cancer cells, inducing the release of tumor-associated antigens and thereby recruiting immune cells with a subsequent increase in antitumoral immune response. To increase the anticancer activity, we engineered a specific oncolytic adenovirus expressing a single-chain variable fragment of an antibody against PD-L1 to combine blockage of PD-1/PD-L1 interaction with the antitumoral activity of Onc.Ad5. To assess its efficacy, we infected B16.OVA cells, a murine model of melanoma, with Ad5 Delta 24 -anti-PD-L1-scFv and then co-cultured them with C57BL/6J naive splenocytes. We observed that the combinatorial treatments were significantly more effective in inducing cancer cell death. Furthermore, we assessed the efficacy of intratumoral administrations of Ad5 Delta 24-anti-PD-L1-scFv in C57BL/6J mice engrafted with B16.OVA and compared this treatment to that of the parental Ad5 Delta 24 or placebo. Treatment with the scFv-expressing Onc.Ad induced a marked reduction of tumor growth concerning the parental Onc.Ad. Additionally, the evaluation of the lymphocytic population infiltrating the treated tumor reveals a favorable immune profile with an enhancement of the CD8(+) population. These data suggest that Onc.Ad-mediated expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors increases oncolytic virotherapy efficacy and could be an effective and promising tool for cancer treatments, opening a new way into cancer therapy.Peer reviewe

    High-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation Does Not Prevent Allergic Sensitization of Infants

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    Objective To investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation dose on allergic sensitization and allergic diseases in infants, and to evaluate whether vitamin D status in pregnancy and at birth are associated with infant allergy outcomes. Study design Altogether, 975 infants participated in a randomized, controlled trial of daily vitamin D supplementation of 10 mu g (400 IU) or 30 mu g (1200 IU) from the age of 2 weeks. At 12 months of age, food and aeroallergen IgE antibodies were measured, and the occurrence of allergic diseases and wheezing were evaluated. Results We found no differences between the vitamin D supplementation groups in food (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.66-1.46) or aeroallergen sensitization at 12 months (OR, 0.76; 95% CI,0.34-1.71). Allergic diseases or wheezing did not differ between groups, except for milk allergy which occurred more often in infants administered 30 mu g vitamin D compared with the 10 mu g dose (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.00-4.96). Infants with high cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (>= 100 nmol/L) had a higher risk of food allergen sensitization compared with those with lower 25(OH)D concentration (75-99.9 nmol/L; OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.19-3.39). Conclusions High-dose vitamin D supplementation did not prevent allergic sensitization, allergic diseases, or wheezing during the first year of life. In contrast, we observed an increased risk of milk allergy in infants randomized to higher vitamin D supplementation, and an increased risk of allergic sensitization in infants with high cord blood vitamin D status, indicating a possible adverse effect of high concentrations of vitamin D.Peer reviewe
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