296 research outputs found

    Patient adherence to and tolerability of self-administered interferon ÎČ-1a using an electronic autoinjection device: a multicentre, open-label, phase IV study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Achieving good adherence to self-injected treatments for multiple sclerosis can be difficult. Injection devices may help to overcome some of the injection-related barriers to adherence that can be experienced by patients. We sought to assess short-term adherence to, and tolerability of, interferon (IFN) ÎČ-1a administered via electronic autoinjection device in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>BRIDGE (RebiSmart to self-inject Rebif serum-free formulation in a multidose cartridge) was a 12-week, multicentre, open-label, single-arm, observational, Phase IV study in which patients self-administered IFN ÎČ-1a (titrated to 44 ÎŒg), subcutaneously (sc), three times weekly, via electronic autoinjection device. Patients were assessed at baseline and 4-weekly intervals to Week 12 or early termination (ET) for: physical examinations; diary card completion (baseline, Weeks 4, 8 only); neurological examinations (baseline, Week 12/ET only); MS Treatment Concern Questionnaire (MSTCQ; Weeks 4, 8, 12 only); Convenience Questionnaire (Week 12 only); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT; baseline only). Adherence was defined as administration of ≄ 80% of scheduled injections, recorded by the autoinjection device.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Overall, 88.2% (105/119; intent-to-treat population) of patients were adherent; 67.2% (80/119) administered all scheduled injections. Medical reasons accounted for 35.6% (31/87) of missed injections, forgetfulness for 20.6% (18/87). Adherence did not correlate with baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (<it>P </it>= 0.821) or PASAT (<it>P </it>= 0.952) scores, or pre-study therapy (<it>P </it>= 0.303). No significant changes (baseline-Week 12) in mean HADS depression (<it>P </it>= 0.482) or anxiety (<it>P </it>= 0.156) scores were observed. 'Overall convenience' was the most important reported benefit of the autoinjection device. Device features associated with handling and ease of use were highly rated. Mean MSTCQ scores for 'flu-like' symptoms (<it>P </it>= 0.022) and global side effects (<it>P </it>= 0.002) significantly improved from Week 4-12. Mean MSTCQ scores for pain at injection site and injection pain increased from Week 4-12 (<it>P </it>< 0.001). Adverse events were mild/moderate. No new safety signals were identified.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Convenience and ease of use of the autoinjection device may improve adherence and, therefore, outcomes, in patients with RRMS receiving sc IFN ÎČ-1a.</p> <p>Trial registration</p> <p>EU Clinical Trials Register (EU-CTR; <url>http://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu</url>): 2009-013333-24</p

    Cortical injury in multiple sclerosis; the role of the immune system

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    The easily identifiable, ubiquitous demyelination and neuronal damage that occurs within the cerebral white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been the subject of extensive study. Accordingly, MS has historically been described as a disease of the white matter. Recently, the cerebral cortex (gray matter) of patients with MS has been recognized as an additional and major site of disease pathogenesis. This acknowledgement of cortical tissue damage is due, in part, to more powerful MRI that allows detection of such injury and to focused neuropathology-based investigations. Cortical tissue damage has been associated with inflammation that is less pronounced to that which is associated with damage in the white matter. There is, however, emerging evidence that suggests cortical damage can be closely associated with robust inflammation not only in the parenchyma, but also in the neighboring meninges. This manuscript will highlight the current knowledge of inflammation associated with cortical tissue injury. Historical literature along with contemporary work that focuses on both the absence and presence of inflammation in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebral meninges will be reviewed

    Effects of Subthalamic Nucleus Lesions and Stimulation upon Corticostriatal Afferents in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rat

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    Abnormalities of striatal glutamate neurotransmission may play a role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease and may respond to neurosurgical interventions, specifically stimulation or lesioning of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). The major glutamatergic afferent pathways to the striatum are from the cortex and thalamus, and are thus likely to be sources of striatal neuronally-released glutamate. Corticostriatal terminals can be distinguished within the striatum at the electron microscopic level as their synaptic vesicles contain the vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1. The majority of terminals which are immunolabeled for glutamate but are not VGLUT1 positive are likely to be thalamostriatal afferents. We compared the effects of short term, high frequency, STN stimulation and lesioning in 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-lesioned rats upon striatal terminals immunolabeled for both presynaptic glutamate and VGLUT1. 6OHDA lesions resulted in a small but significant increase in the proportions of VGLUT1-labeled terminals making synapses on dendritic shafts rather than spines. STN stimulation for one hour, but not STN lesions, increased the proportion of synapses upon spines. The density of presynaptic glutamate immuno-gold labeling was unchanged in both VGLUT1-labeled and -unlabeled terminals in 6OHDA-lesioned rats compared to controls. Rats with 6OHDA lesions+STN stimulation showed a decrease in nerve terminal glutamate immuno-gold labeling in both VGLUT1-labeled and -unlabeled terminals. STN lesions resulted in a significant decrease in the density of presynaptic immuno-gold-labeled glutamate only in VGLUT1-labeled terminals. STN interventions may achieve at least part of their therapeutic effect in PD by normalizing the location of corticostriatal glutamatergic terminals and by altering striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission

    A new framework for cortico-striatal plasticity: behavioural theory meets In vitro data at the reinforcement-action interface

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    Operant learning requires that reinforcement signals interact with action representations at a suitable neural interface. Much evidence suggests that this occurs when phasic dopamine, acting as a reinforcement prediction error, gates plasticity at cortico-striatal synapses, and thereby changes the future likelihood of selecting the action(s) coded by striatal neurons. But this hypothesis faces serious challenges. First, cortico-striatal plasticity is inexplicably complex, depending on spike timing, dopamine level, and dopamine receptor type. Second, there is a credit assignment problem—action selection signals occur long before the consequent dopamine reinforcement signal. Third, the two types of striatal output neuron have apparently opposite effects on action selection. Whether these factors rule out the interface hypothesis and how they interact to produce reinforcement learning is unknown. We present a computational framework that addresses these challenges. We first predict the expected activity changes over an operant task for both types of action-coding striatal neuron, and show they co-operate to promote action selection in learning and compete to promote action suppression in extinction. Separately, we derive a complete model of dopamine and spike-timing dependent cortico-striatal plasticity from in vitro data. We then show this model produces the predicted activity changes necessary for learning and extinction in an operant task, a remarkable convergence of a bottom-up data-driven plasticity model with the top-down behavioural requirements of learning theory. Moreover, we show the complex dependencies of cortico-striatal plasticity are not only sufficient but necessary for learning and extinction. Validating the model, we show it can account for behavioural data describing extinction, renewal, and reacquisition, and replicate in vitro experimental data on cortico-striatal plasticity. By bridging the levels between the single synapse and behaviour, our model shows how striatum acts as the action-reinforcement interface

    Venous hemodynamics in neurological disorders: an analytical review with hydrodynamic analysis.

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    Venous abnormalities contribute to the pathophysiology of several neurological conditions. This paper reviews the literature regarding venous abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS), leukoaraiosis, and normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). The review is supplemented with hydrodynamic analysis to assess the effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and cerebral blood flow (CBF) of venous hypertension in general, and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) in particular.CCSVI-like venous anomalies seem unlikely to account for reduced CBF in patients with MS, thus other mechanisms must be at work, which increase the hydraulic resistance of the cerebral vascular bed in MS. Similarly, hydrodynamic changes appear to be responsible for reduced CBF in leukoaraiosis. The hydrodynamic properties of the periventricular veins make these vessels particularly vulnerable to ischemia and plaque formation.Venous hypertension in the dural sinuses can alter intracranial compliance. Consequently, venous hypertension may change the CSF dynamics, affecting the intracranial windkessel mechanism. MS and NPH appear to share some similar characteristics, with both conditions exhibiting increased CSF pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius.CCSVI appears to be a real phenomenon associated with MS, which causes venous hypertension in the dural sinuses. However, the role of CCSVI in the pathophysiology of MS remains unclear

    Italian guidelines for primary headaches: 2012 revised version

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    The first edition of the Italian diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for primary headaches in adults was published in J Headache Pain 2(Suppl. 1):105–190 (2001). Ten years later, the guideline committee of the Italian Society for the Study of Headaches (SISC) decided it was time to update therapeutic guidelines. A literature search was carried out on Medline database, and all articles on primary headache treatments in English, German, French and Italian published from February 2001 to December 2011 were taken into account. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses were analysed for each drug. If RCT were lacking, open studies and case series were also examined. According to the previous edition, four levels of recommendation were defined on the basis of levels of evidence, scientific strength of evidence and clinical effectiveness. Recommendations for symptomatic and prophylactic treatment of migraine and cluster headache were therefore revised with respect to previous 2001 guidelines and a section was dedicated to non-pharmacological treatment. This article reports a summary of the revised version published in extenso in an Italian version

    Measurements of differential cross-sections in top-quark pair events with a high transverse momentum top quark and limits on beyond the Standard Model contributions to top-quark pair production with the ATLAS detector at √s = 13 TeV

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    Cross-section measurements of top-quark pair production where the hadronically decaying top quark has transverse momentum greater than 355 GeV and the other top quark decays into â„“Îœb are presented using 139 fb−1 of data collected by the ATLAS experiment during proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The fiducial cross-section at s = 13 TeV is measured to be σ = 1.267 ± 0.005 ± 0.053 pb, where the uncertainties reflect the limited number of data events and the systematic uncertainties, giving a total uncertainty of 4.2%. The cross-section is measured differentially as a function of variables characterising the ttÂŻ system and additional radiation in the events. The results are compared with various Monte Carlo generators, including comparisons where the generators are reweighted to match a parton-level calculation at next-to-next-to-leading order. The reweighting improves the agreement between data and theory. The measured distribution of the top-quark transverse momentum is used to search for new physics in the context of the effective field theory framework. No significant deviation from the Standard Model is observed and limits are set on the Wilson coefficients of the dimension-six operators OtG and Otq(8), where the limits on the latter are the most stringent to date. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

    Determination of the parton distribution functions of the proton using diverse ATLAS data from pp collisions at √s = 7, 8 and 13 TeV