69 research outputs found

    Un inciampo nel cammino dell’eguaglianza: la sentenza n. 1/2022 della Corte costituzionale sul reclutamento del personale educativo

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    Attraverso un’analisi critica che involge tanto la tecnica decisoria quanto le argomentazioni elaborate in punto di ragionevolezza, il lavoro sostiene che la sentenza n. 1/2022, con cui la Corte costituzionale ha dichiarato inammissibile la questione di legittimità della norma che ammette una deroga al principio di non discriminazione con riferimento al reclutamento del personale educativo di convitti ed educandati, costituisce un inciampo nel cammino per la realizzazione dell’eguaglianza. Si ritiene non sussistessero ragioni ostative né all’adozione di una sentenza di accoglimento né alla possibilità che la Corte sollevasse innanzi a sé una questione avente ad oggetto le altre norme del sistema educativo che, insieme a quella censurata, presuppongono come necessaria la distinzione tra i sessi nell’assunzione in servizio. Sebbene sostanzialmente isolata, in assenza dell’auspicabile mutamento di indirizzo giurisprudenziale, tale decisione lascia temere significative ripercussioni sulle future applicazioni dei principi di eguaglianza e non discriminazione.Through a critical analysis that involves both the decisional technique and the arguments elaborated on the point of reasonableness, the work argues that Judgment No. 1/2022, by which the Constitutional Court declared inadmissible the question of the legitimacy of the norm allowing an exception to the principle of non-discrimination with reference to the recruitment of educational personnel of boarding schools and educandati, constitutes a stumbling block in the path to the realization of equality. It is believed that there were no reasons preventing either the adoption of an upholding judgment or the possibility of the Court raising before it an issue concerning the other norms of the educational system which, together with the one censured, presuppose as necessary the distinction between the sexes in recruitment for service. Although essentially isolated, in the absence of the hoped-for change in jurisprudential direction, this decision raises fears of significant repercussions for future applications of the principles of equality and nondiscrimination

    IlliceitĂ  del ricorso a tecniche di PMA da parte di coppie dello stesso sesso e tutela del preminente interesse del minore: la sentenza n. 32/2021 della Corte costituzionale

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    Il contributo ha ad oggetto la sentenza n. 32/2021, con cui la Corte costituzionale ha dichiarato inammissibile la questione di legittimità avente ad oggetto gli artt. 8 e 9 della legge n. 40/2004 e l’art. 250 c.c., impugnati perché non consentirebbero al nato da un progetto di PMA eterologa, praticata da una coppia del medesimo sesso, l’attribuzione dello status di figlio riconosciuto anche dalla madre intenzionale che abbia prestato il consenso alla pratica fecondativa, ove non vi siano le condizioni per procedere all’adozione nei casi particolari e sia accertato giudizialmente l’interesse del minore. Il lavoro ricostruisce i principali orientamenti giurisprudenziali in materia, per poi concentrare l’attenzione sui passaggi argomentativi più significativi della decisione n. 32/2021, dai quali si evince la preferenza finora accordata dalla Corte alle decisioni di inammissibilità rispetto alla possibilità di risolvere con sentenze di accoglimento le questioni che involgono la discrezionalità del legislatore in materia procreativa. Il lavoro conclude evidenziando che, sebbene dal tenore argomentativo per così dire insolito, la decisione del Giudice costituzionale merita di essere condivisa in quanto per garantire un pieno riconoscimento ai diritti del minore non sarebbe di per sé sufficiente la sola modifica dei limiti soggettivi prescritti dall’art. 5 della l. n. 40/2004, risultando invece necessario un intervento organico del legislatore.The contribution has as its object sentence n. 32/2021, with which the Constitutional Court has declared inadmissible the question of legitimacy concerning Articles 8 and 9 of Law n. 40/2004 and Article 250 of the Civil Code, challenged because they would not allow the child born from a project of heterologous PMA, practiced by a couple of the same sex, the attribution of the status of child recognized by the inten-ded mother who has given consent to the fertilization practice, where there are no conditions to proceed to adoption in special cases and the interest of the child is judicially established. The work reconstructs the main jurisprudential orientations on the subject, and then focuses attention on the most significant argomental passages of decision no. 32/2021, from which it is clear that the Court has so far given preference to decisions of inadmissibility with respect to the possibility of resolving issues involving the discre-tion of the legislator in procreative matters with judgments of acceptance. The work concludes by pointing out that, although the tenor of the argument so to speak unusual, the decision of the Constitutional Judge deserves to be shared as to ensure full recognition of the rights of the child would not be sufficient per se the mere modification of the subjective limits prescribed by art. 5 of law no. 40/2004, resulting instead necessary organic intervention of the legislature

    Un caso di effettivitĂ  perduta: la legge n. 40/2004 e la doppia maternitĂ 

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    The essay investigates the legal consequences of the loss of effectiveness of law n. 40/2004 in cases of recognition of double motherhood of children born in Italy from a homogenous-relational project carried out abroad: first, the repercussions on the principles of legality, equality and legal certainty in the face of multiple jurispru- dential orientations on the subject, and secondly, the “fate” of the limit ex art. 5 law 40 in the absence of an organic intervention of the legislature to protect the rights of children born from a homogenous project

    L'Europa aspira a diventare uno Stato sociale?

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    Il lavoro ha ad oggetto il mutamento nell’indirizzo politico europeo esplicitato dal Programma 2019-2024 della Commissione europea, dai lavori sulla Conferenza sul futuro dell’Europa e dalla risposta alla crisi sanitaria da Covid-19. Più precisamente, il saggio indaga le ripercussioni sull’assetto normativo e istituzionale dell’Unione determinate dal radicarsi di una matrice sociale informata al principio di solidarietà prescritto dai Trattati a lungo contraddetto da politiche fondate sulla preminenza del principio di concorrenza. Ricostruita la volontà delle istituzioni europee di rafforzare la solidarietà sociale, posta a fondamento dell’Agenda della Commissione von der Leyen e dei lavori per la Conferenza sul futuro dell’Europa, l’analisi prende in considerazione anche la risposta europea alla crisi sanitaria da Covid-19. Si ritiene che la messa in discussione di alcuni capisaldi del tradizionale diritto economico europeo, a favore dell’approccio solidaristico che ha condotto all’adozione del Next Generation EU e delle altre misure finanziate attraverso il ricorso all’indebitamento, racchiuda in sé un potenziale trasformativo in grado di coniugare la ripresa economica con un ripensamento delle regole fiscali e di bilancio. Reputato poco realistico un puro e semplice ritorno all’assetto istituzionale e normativo pre-emergenziale, il lavoro si interroga, in una prospettiva de iure condendo, sul destino dei principi di pareggio di bilancio e del mantenimento della stabilità dei prezzi previsti dal TFUE, dagli accordi intergovernativi (come il c.d. Fiscal Compact) e dalle Costituzioni che, come la nostra, a quei principi si sono adeguate. Il saggio si conclude sostenendo che tale mutato indirizzo politico, sebbene non consenta ancora di parlare di uno Stato sociale europeo, evidenzia quanto meno l’aspirazione dell’Unione a diventarlo.The work deals with the change in the European political direction expressed by the Pro-gram 2019-2024 of the European Commission, the work on the Conference on the Future of Europe and the response to the health crisis by Covid-19. More precisely, the essay investigates the repercussions on the regulatory and institutional structure of the Union determined by the taking root of a social matrix informed by the principle of solidarity prescribed by the Treaties, long contradicted by policies based on the primacy of the principle of competition. Having reconstructed the will of European institutions to reinforce social solidarity, which is the foundation of the von der Leyen Commission's Agenda and the work of the Conference on the Future of Europe, the analysis also takes into consideration the European response to the Covid-19 health crisis. It is believed that the questioning of some of the cornerstones of traditional European economic law, in favor of the solidarity based approach that led to the adoption of the Next Generation EU and other measures financed through recourse to debt, contains a transformative potential capable of combining economic recovery with a rethinking of fiscal and budgetary rules. Given the unrealistic nature of a mere return to the pre-emergency institutional and regulatory set-up, the work questions, in a de iure condendo perspective, the fate of the principles of balanced budgets and maintenance of price stability provided by the TFEU, intergovernmental agreements (such as the so-called Fiscal Compact) and the Constitutions which, like ours, have adapted to those principles. The essay concludes by arguing that this change in political direction, even though it does not yet make it possible to speak of a European welfare state, at least highlights the Union's aspiration to become one

    In vitro evaluation on HeLa cells of protective mechanisms of probiotic lactobacilli against Candida clinical isolates

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    Aims: To characterize in vitro the ability of human Lactobacillus strains to inhibit the adhesion, to displace and to compete with clinically isolated Candida strains. Methods and Results: Three types of assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 319, Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 and a specific probiotic combination (SYNBIO) on adhesion of Candida pathogens to HeLa cells: blockage by exclusion (lactobacilli and HeLa followed by pathogens), competition (lactobacilli, HeLa and pathogens together) and displacement (pathogens and HeLa followed by the addition of lactobacilli). Bacterial adhesion to HeLa was quantified by microscopy after May-Grunwald/Giemsa stain. The inhibition results highlight a significant (P < 0.05) competition of the considered probiotics against all the Candida strains. The results suggest that the probiotic strains used in this study could prevent colonization of the urogenital tract by relevant pathogens such as Candida strains through barrier and interference mechanisms (mainly displacement and competition), but the degree of inhibition of adhesion was bacterial strain-dependent. Conclusions: The results support the potential of these Lactobacillus probiotic strains as anti-infective agents in the vagina and encourage further studies about their capacity to prevent and manage urogenital tract infections in females. Significance and Impact of the Study: To optimize the defensive properties of the vaginal microbiota, improving the health of many women by probiotic intervention

    Changes on fecal microbiota in rats exposed to permethrin during postnatal development

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    Alteration of the gut microbiota through diet and environmental contaminants may disturb the mammalian digestive system, leading to various diseases. Because most exposure to environmentally pyrethroid pesticides such as permethrin (PERM) occurs through the diet, the commensal gut microbiota is likely to be exposed to PERM. The study aimed at evaluating the effect of low-dose exposure to PERM in early life on the composition of fecal microbiota in rats. Over a 4-month follow-up period, fecal microbiota and short-chain fatty acids were measured in order to identify possible differences between PERM-treated rats and controls. Further in vitro antimicrobial experiments were conducted to establish the antibacterial activity of PERM against different strains to obtain Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations. The main finding focused on the reduced abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas species, increased Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus in PERM-treated rats compared to controls. Changes of acetic and propionic acid levels were registered in PERM-treated group. From in vitro studies, PERM showed higher antibacterial activity against beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus paracasei, while to inhibit potential pathogens as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli PERM concentration needed to be increased. In summary, exposure to PERM could affect the fecal microbiota and could be a crucial factor contributing to the development of diseases

    Pilot-scale Production and Viability Analysis of Freeze-Dried Probiotic Bacteria Using Different Protective Agents

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    The functional food industry requires an improvement of probiotic strain stability during storage, especially when they are stored at room temperature. In this study, the viability of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® and Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502® using different protective agents (i.e., glycerine, mannitol, sorbitol, inulin, dextrin, Crystalean®) was determined and compared with semi skimmed milk (SSM) control. No significant differences were observed between the tested protectants and the control (SSM) during storage at refrigerated conditions. During storage at room temperature, only glycerine was found to stabilize viability better than other tested substances
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