53 research outputs found

    Identification of organoleptic and functional quality profiles in Spanish traditional cultivars of tomato

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    The original publication is available at www.actahort.orgDespite the increasing importance of the internal quality in breeding programmes and marketing of tomato, little information is available regarding organoleptic and functional profiles of traditional cultivars of renowned quality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal quality of 51 traditional tomato accessions representative of the Spanish genepool. Total soluble solids, oxalic, malic, citric and glutamic acids, fructose, glucose and sucrose, vitamin C and lycopene were determined, thereby obtaining the respective organoleptic and functional profiles. These profiles will be very valuable in establishing breeding objectives, to provide the cultivars appreciated by consumers, willing to pay higher prices for them. A considerable high level of variability has been found in the profiles obtained and no clear groups could be identified with regards to fruit morphology or local name. Variability was higher in those traits affecting functional quality (coefficients of variation of 51.2% for vitamin C and 74.6% for lycopene content) than those affecting organoleptic quality (coefficients of variation ranged from 18% for total soluble contents to 38.8% for glutamic acid). Additionally, several accessions were selected on the basis of their higher individual contents for further studies of internal quality. These accessions were CDP8102 and CDP3547 for high malic acid, accession CDP6315 for high fructose and glucose levels, accession CDP1523 for its lycopene content and accessions CDP2226 and CDP336 for high vitamin C content. Considering previous correlations between individual contents and consumer preference, accessions CDP7554, CDP2666 and CDP3547 should be further evaluated for their overall flavour quality.Cortés Olmos, C.; Leiva Brondo, M.; Adalid Martinez, AM.; Cebolla Cornejo, J.; Nuez Viñals, F. (2011). Identification of organoleptic and functional quality profiles in Spanish traditional cultivars of tomato. International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS). doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.918.62

    Detection of Motor Cerebral Activity After Median Nerve Stimulation During General Anesthesia (STIM-MOTANA): Protocol for a Prospective Interventional Study

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    International audienceBackground Accidental awareness during general anesthesia (AAGA) is defined as an unexpected awareness of the patient during general anesthesia. This phenomenon occurs in 1%-2% of high-risk practice patients and can cause physical suffering and psychological after-effects, called posttraumatic stress disorder. In fact, no monitoring techniques are satisfactory enough to effectively prevent AAGA; therefore, new alternatives are needed. Because the first reflex for a patient during an AAGA is to move, but cannot do so because of the neuromuscular blockers, we believe that it is possible to design a brain-computer interface (BCI) based on the detection of movement intention to warn the anesthetist. To do this, we propose to describe and detect the changes in terms of motor cortex oscillations during general anesthesia with propofol, while a median nerve stimulation is performed. We believe that our results could enable the design of a BCI based on median nerve stimulation, which could prevent AAGA. Objective To our knowledge, no published studies have investigated the detection of electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns in relation to peripheral nerve stimulation over the sensorimotor cortex during general anesthesia. The main objective of this study is to describe the changes in terms of event-related desynchronization and event-related synchronization modulations, in the EEG signal over the motor cortex during general anesthesia with propofol while a median nerve stimulation is performed. Methods STIM-MOTANA is an interventional and prospective study conducted with patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia, involving EEG measurements and median nerve stimulation at two different times: (1) when the patient is awake before surgery (2) and under general anesthesia. A total of 30 patients will receive surgery under complete intravenous anesthesia with a target-controlled infusion pump of propofol. Results The changes in event-related desynchronization and event-related synchronization during median nerve stimulation according to the various propofol concentrations for 30 patients will be analyzed. In addition, we will apply 4 different offline machine learning algorithms to detect the median nerve stimulation at the cerebral level. Recruitment began in December 2022. Data collection is expected to conclude in June 2024. Conclusions STIM-MOTANA will be the first protocol to investigate median nerve stimulation cerebral motor effect during general anesthesia for the detection of intraoperative awareness. Based on strong practical and theoretical scientific reasoning from our previous studies, our innovative median nerve stimulation–based BCI would provide a way to detect intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT05272202; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT05272202 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) PRR1-10.2196/4387

    Sensorimotor and cognitive involvement of the beta-gamma oscillation in the frontal N30 component of somatosensory evoked potentials

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    The most consistent negative cortical component of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), namely the frontal N30, can be considered more multidimensional than a strict item of standard somatosensory investigation, dedicated to tracking the afferent volley from the peripheral sensory nerve potentials to the primary somatosensory cortex. In this review, we revisited its classical sensorimotor implication within the framework of the recent oscillatory model of ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms.Recently, the N30 component was demonstrated to be related to an increase in the power of beta-gamma EEG oscillation and a phase reorganization of the ongoing EEG oscillations (phase locking) in this frequency band. Thanks to high density EEG recordings and the inverse modeling method (swLORETA), it was shown that different overlapping areas of the motor and premotor cortex are specifically involved in generating the N30 in the form of a beta gamma oscillatory phase locking and power increase. This oscillatory approach has allowed a re-investigation of the movement gating behavior of the N30. It was demonstrated that the concomitant execution of finger movements by a stimulated hand impinges the temporal concentration of the ongoing beta/gamma EEG oscillations and abolished the N30 component. It was hypothesized that the involvement of neuronal populations in both the sensorimotor cortex and other related areas were unable to respond to the phasic sensory activation so could not phase-lock their oscillatory signals to the external sensory input during the movement. In this case, the actual movement has primacy over the artificial somatosensory input. The contribution of the ongoing oscillatory activity in the N30 emergence calls for a reappraisal of fundamental and clinical interpretations of the frontal N30 component. An absent or reduced amplitude of the N30 can now be viewed not only as a deficit in the activation of the somatosensory synaptic network in response to sensory input, but also as a global alteration of the beta-gamma ongoing oscillation and/or of the phase-locking mechanism itself.In addition, it has lately been shown that the N30 amplitude increases during the observation of another person's hand movement. A new paradigm in which the experimenter's hand movement, observed by the participant, triggered the electric stimulation of the subject's hand has been introduced. This has allowed the identification of different cortical areas which are closely related to those involved in the mirror neuron system. This contribution of N30 behavior has paved the way for future investigation of the integration of sensory input into cognitive context.SCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe

    [Mirror neurons, neural substrate of action understanding?]

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    In 1992, the Laboratory of Human Physiology at the University of Parma (Italy) publish a study describing “mirror” neurons in the macaque that activate both when the monkey performs an action and when it observes an experimenter performing the same action. The research team behind this discovery postulates that the mirror neurons system is the neural basis of our ability to understand the actions of others, through the motor mapping of the observed action on the observer's motor repertory (direct-matching hypothesis). Nevertheless, this conception met serious criticism. These critics attempt to relativize their function by placing them within a network of neurocognitive and sensory interdependencies. In short, the essential characteristic of these neurons is to combine the processing of sensory information, especially visual, with that of motor information. Their elementary function would be to provide a motor simulation of the observed action, based on visual information from it. They can contribute, with other non-mirror areas, to the identification/prediction of the action goal and to the interpretation of the intention of the actor performing it. Studying the connectivity and high frequency synchronizations of the different brain areas involved in action observation would likely provide important information about the dynamic contribution of mirror neurons to “action understanding”. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date analysis of the scientific evidence related to mirror neurons and their elementary functions, as well as to shed light on the contribution of these neurons to our ability to interpret and understand others’ actions.SCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe
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