8,520 research outputs found

    Discrete-time pilot model

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    Pilot behavior is considered as a discrete-time process where the decision making has a sequential nature. This model differs from both the quasilinear model which follows from classical control theory and from the optimal control model which considers the human operator as a Kalman estimator-predictor. An additional factor considered is that the pilot's objective may not be adequately formulated as a quadratic cost functional to be minimized, but rather as a more fuzzy measure of the closeness with which the aircraft follows a reference trajectory. All model parameters, in the digital program simulating the pilot's behavior, were successfully compared in terms of standard-deviation and performance with those of professional pilots in IFR configuration. The first practical application of the model was in the study of its performance degradation when the aircraft model static margin decreases

    Discrete time modeling of heavy transport plane pilot behavior

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    The desire to improve flight safety leads to a classification of various flight troubles in three groups: (1) troubles from sensitivity to flight disturbances, (2) maneuverability troubles (whenever a correction maneuver induces an unexpected deviation on another parameter), and (3) pilot troubles (pilot overload when required attention is excessive or underload entailing a loss of vigilance). Sensitivity to disturbances and maneuverability of a given aircraft may be evaluated from the early design stage. Evaluation of the pilot behavior, however, may be realized only in actual flight or with a flight simulator, that is quite late in the development period. For this reason, it is desirable to have available, at the design stage, a model of the pilot behavior to command the differential system describing the envisioned aircraft. This aim implies two major requirements. First, the program must be compatible with a wide range of possible aircraft designs; ideally, the program should be self-learning. Second, mental load and overall pilot performance must be modeled

    The high-pressure behavior of CaMoO4

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    We report a high-pressure study of tetragonal scheelite-type CaMoO4 up to 29 GPa. In order to characterize its high-pressure behavior, we have combined Raman and optical-absorption measurements with density-functional theory calculations. We have found evidence of a pressure-induced phase transition near 15 GPa. Experiments and calculations agree in assigning the high-pressure phase to a monoclinic fergusonite-type structure. The reported results are consistent with previous powder x-ray-diffraction experiments, but are in contradiction with the conclusions obtained from earlier Raman measurements, which support the existence of more than one phase transition in the pressure range covered by our studies. The observed scheelite-fergusonite transition induces significant changes in the electronic band gap and phonon spectrum of CaMoO4. We have determined the pressure evolution of the band gap for the low- and high-pressure phases as well as the frequencies and pressure dependences of the Raman-active and infrared-active modes. In addition, based upon calculations of the phonon dispersion of the scheelite phase, carried out at a pressure higher than the transition pressure, we propose a possible mechanism for the reported phase transition. Furthermore, from the calculations we determined the pressure dependence of the unit-cell parameters and atomic positions of the different phases and their room-temperature equations of state. These results are compared with previous experiments showing a very good agreement. Finally, information on bond compressibility is reported and correlated with the macroscopic compressibility of CaMoO4. The reported results are of interest for the many technological applications of this oxide.Comment: 36 pages, 10 figures, 8 table

    Hydrogeomorphic processes and torrent control works on a large alluvial fan in the eastern Italian Alps

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    Abstract. Alluvial fans are often present at the outlet of small drainage basins in alpine valleys; their formation is due to sediment transport associated with flash floods and debris flows. Alluvial fans are preferred sites for human settlements and are frequently crossed by transport routes. In order to reduce the risk for economic activities located on or near the fan and prevent loss of lives due to floods and debris flows, torrent control works have been extensively carried out on many alpine alluvial fans. Hazard management on alluvial fans in alpine regions is dependent upon reliable procedures to evaluate variations in the frequency and severity of hydrogeomorphic processes and the long-term performance of the torrent training works. An integrated approach to the analysis of hydrogeomorphic processes and their interactions with torrent control works has been applied to a large alluvial fan in the southern Carnic Alps (northeastern Italy). Study methods encompass field observations, interpretation of aerial photographs, analysis of historical documents, and numerical modelling of debris flows. The overall performance of control works implemented in the early decades of 20th century was satisfactory, and a reduction of hazardous events was recognised from features observed in the field and in aerial photographs, as well as from the analysis of historical records. The 2-D simulation of debris flows confirms these findings, indicating that debris flow deposition would not affect urban areas or main roads, even in the case of a high-magnitude event. Present issues in the management of the studied alluvial fan are representative of situations frequently found in the European Alps and deal with the need for maintenance of the control structures and the pressures for land use changes aimed at the economic exploitation of the fan surface

    Search for the radion using the ATLAS detector

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    The possibility of observing the radion using the ATLAS detector at LHC is investigated. Studies on searches for the Standard Model Higgs with the ATLAS detector are re-interpreted to obtain limits on radion decay to gamma-gamma and ZZ(*). The observability of radion decays into Higgs pairs, which subsequently decay into gamma-gamma+b-bbar or tau-tau+b-bbar is then estimate

    Dysphonia secondary to traumatic avulsion of the vocal fold in infants

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    Objective: Airway compromise due to paediatric intubation injuries is well documented; however, intubation injuries may also cause severe voice disorders. We report our experience and review the world literature on the voice effects of traumatic paediatric intubation. Case series: We report five cases of children referred to Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children who suffered traumatic avulsion of the vocal fold at the time of, or secondary to, endotracheal intubation. All children had significant dysphonia and underwent specialist voice therapy. Conclusions: The mechanisms of injury, risk factors and management of the condition are discussed. Children suffering traumatic intubation require follow up throughout childhood and beyond puberty as their vocal needs and abilities change. At the time of writing, none of the reported patients had yet undergone reconstructive or medialisation surgery. However, regular specialist voice therapy evaluation is recommended for such patients, with consideration of phonosurgical techniques including injection laryngoplasty or thyroplasty

    Genetic drift at expanding frontiers promotes gene segregation

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    Competition between random genetic drift and natural selection plays a central role in evolution: Whereas non-beneficial mutations often prevail in small populations by chance, mutations that sweep through large populations typically confer a selective advantage. Here, however, we observe chance effects during range expansions that dramatically alter the gene pool even in large microbial populations. Initially well-mixed populations of two fluorescently labeled strains of Escherichia coli develop well-defined, sector-like regions with fractal boundaries in expanding colonies. The formation of these regions is driven by random fluctuations that originate in a thin band of pioneers at the expanding frontier. A comparison of bacterial and yeast colonies (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suggests that this large-scale genetic sectoring is a generic phenomenon that may provide a detectable footprint of past range expansions.Comment: Please visit http://www.pnas.org/content/104/50/19926.abstract for published articl

    Next-to-leading order QCD predictions for the hadronic WHWH+jet production

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    We calculate the next-to-leading order(NLO) QCD corrections to the WH0WH^0 production in association with a jet at hadron colliders. We study the impacts of the complete NLO QCD radiative corrections to the integrated cross sections, the scale dependence of the cross sections, and the differential cross sections (dŌÉdcos‚Ā°őł\frac{d \sigma}{d\cos\theta}, dŌÉdpT\frac{d \sigma}{dp_T}) of the final WW-, Higgs-boson and jet. We find that the corrections significantly modify the physical observables, and reduce the scale uncertainty of the LO cross section. Our results show that by applying the inclusive scheme with pT,jcut=20GeVp_{T,j}^{cut}=20 GeV and taking mH=120GeVm_H=120 GeV, őľ=őľ0‚Č°12(mW+mH)\mu=\mu_0\equiv\frac{1}{2}(m_W+m_H), the K-factor is 1.15 for the process ppňČ‚ÜíW¬ĪH0j+Xp\bar p \to W^{\pm}H^0j+X at the Tevatron, while the K-factors for the processes pp‚ÜíW‚ąíH0j+Xpp \to W^-H^0j+X and pp‚ÜíW+H0j+Xpp \to W^+H^0j+X at the LHC are 1.12 and 1.08 respectively. We conclude that to understand the hadronic associated WH0WH^0 production, it is necessary to study the NLO QCD corrections to WH0jWH^0j production process which is part of the inclusive WH0WH^0 production.Comment: 26 pages, 27 figures, accepted by Phys. Rev.

    A highly conserved circular RNA is required to keep neural cells in a progenitor state in the mammalian brain

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    circSLC45A4 is the main RNA splice isoform produced from its genetic locus and one of the highest expressed circRNAs in the developing human frontal cortex. Knockdown of this highly conserved circRNA in a human neuroblastoma cell line is sufficient to induce spontaneous neuronal differentiation, measurable by increased expression of neuronal marker genes. Depletion of circSlc45a4 in the developing mouse cortex causes a significant reduction of the basal progenitor pool and increases the expression of neurogenic regulators. Furthermore, knockdown of circSlc45a4a induces a significant depletion of cells in the cortical plate. In addition, deconvolution of the bulk RNA-seq data with the help of single-cell RNA-seq data validates the depletion of basal progenitors and reveals an increase in Cajal-Retzius cells. In summary, we present a detailed study of a highly conserved circular RNA that is necessary to maintain the pool of neural progenitors in vitro and in vivo
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