82 research outputs found

    Comparing Different Sticky Traps to Monitor the Occurrence of <i>Philaenus spumarius</i> and <i>Neophilaenus campestris</i>, Vectors of <i>Xylella fastidiosa,</i> in Different Crops

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    Following the detection of the quarantine bacterium Xylella fastidiosa (Wells et al.) in the Apulia region (southern Italy) and the identification of spittlebugs as the main vector species that contributes to its epidemic spread, monitoring activities have been intensified in an attempt to implement vector control strategies. To date, sweep nets have been the most widely used sampling method to monitor adult spittlebug populations. Field experiments were carried out, during 2018 and 2019, to evaluate the effectiveness of sticky traps in capturing spittlebugs in different woody crops. The attractiveness of different traps was compared: four colored sticky traps (white, red, blue, and yellow), with the yellow sticky traps having three different background patterns (plain yellow, yellow with a black circle pattern, and yellow with a black line pattern). In addition, the efficiency of the yellow sticky traps was evaluated by placing the traps on the ground or hanging them from the canopies in orchards with different spittlebug population densities. Trap catches of Philaenus spumarius (Linnaeus) and Neophilaenus campestris (Fallén) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) were compared with those collected using sweep nets. The two spittlebug species showed a similar response to the colored traps and were mainly attracted to the yellow sticky traps. Captures throughout the adult season indicated that an accurate estimation of the presence and abundance of spittlebugs can be obtained by integrating the two sampling methods. Moreover, sweep nets appeared to be more efficient in collecting adults soon after their emergence, while the use of sticky traps was more efficient in the rest of the adult season when the use of traps can significantly expedite vector monitoring programs

    The Impact of COVID-19 Lockdown Announcements on Mental Health: Quasi-Natural Experiment in Lombardy, Italy

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    Background Evidence showed that mental health problems have risen markedly during COVID-19. It is unclear if part of the mental sufferings relates to the climate of uncertainty and confusion originated from rough communication by health officials and politicians. Here, we test the impact of unanticipated policy announcements of lockdown policies on mental health of the older population. Methods We used a representative telephone-based survey of 4400 people aged 65 years or older in Italy's Lombardy region to compare information on self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression and poor-quality sleep of subjects interviewed on the days of the policy announcement with that of subjects interviewed on other days. We used regression models adjusting for potential socio-demographic confounders as well study design with inverse probability weighting. Results On days when policymakers announced to extend the lockdown, mental health deteriorated on average by 5.5 percentage points [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-9.8] for self-reported anxiety symptoms and 5.1 percentage points (95% CI: 2.7-7.4) for self-reported depressive symptoms. The effect of the announcement to shorten the lockdown is more moderate but statistically significant. These associations were short term in duration; after just 1 day, self-reported mental health and sleep quality return to levels better than pre-announcement until a new policy change. Conclusions Our research shows that lockdown policy announcements are associated with short-term worsening in mental distress, highlighting the importance of appropriate communication strategies and political determinations in crisis times

    An Inflammatory Signature to Predict the Clinical Benefit of First-Line Cetuximab Plus Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

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    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway has been shown to play a crucial role in several inflammatory conditions and host immune-inflammation status is related to tumor prognosis. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of a four-gene inflammatory signature in recurrent/metastatic (R/M) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with the EGFR inhibitor cetuximab plus chemotherapy. The inflammatory signature was assessed on 123 R/M HNSCC patients, enrolled in the multicenter trial B490 receiving first-line cetuximab plus platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of the study was progression free survival (PFS), while secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR). The patient population was subdivided into 3 groups according to the signature score groups. The four-genes-signature proved a significant prognostic value, resulting in a median PFS of 9.2 months in patients with high vs. 6.2 months for intermediate vs. 3.9 months for low values (p = 0.0016). The same findings were confirmed for OS, with median time of 18.4, 13.4, and 7.5 months for high, intermediate, and low values of the score, respectively (p = 0.0001). When ORR was considered, the signature was significantly higher in responders than in non-responders (p = 0.0092), reaching an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.65 (95% CI: 0.55-0.75). Our findings highlight the role of inflammation in the response to cetuximab and chemotherapy in R/M-HNSCC and may have translational implications for improving treatment selection

    A Circulating Risk Score, Based on Combined Expression of Exo-miR-130a-3p and Fibrinopeptide A, as Predictive Biomarker of Relapse in Resectable Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

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    To date, the 5-year overall survival rate of 60% for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unsatisfactory. Therefore, reliable prognostic factors are needed. Growing evidence shows that cancer progression may depend on an interconnection between cancer cells and the surrounding tumor microenvironment; hence, circulating molecules may represent promising markers of cancer recurrence. In order to identify a prognostic score, we performed in-depth high-throughput analyses of plasma circulating markers, including exosomal microRNAs (Exo-miR) and peptides, in 67 radically resected NSCLCs. The miRnome profile selected the Exo-miR-130a-3p as the most overexpressed in relapsed patients. Peptidome analysis identified four progressively more degraded forms of fibrinopeptide A (FpA), which were depleted in progressing patients. Notably, stepwise Cox regression analysis selected Exo-miR-130a-3p and the greatest FpA (2-16) to build a score predictive of recurrence, where high-risk patients had 18 months of median disease-free survival. Moreover, in vitro transfections showed that higher levels of miR-130a-3p lead to a deregulation of pathways involved in metastasis and angiogenesis, including the coagulation process and metalloprotease increase which might be linked to FpA reduction. In conclusion, by integrating circulating markers, the identified risk score may help clinicians predict early-stage NSCLC patients who are more likely to relapse after primary surgery

    Worldwide trends in population-based survival for children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with leukaemia, by subtype, during 2000–14 (CONCORD-3): analysis of individual data from 258 cancer registries in 61 countries

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    Background: Leukaemias comprise a heterogenous group of haematological malignancies. In CONCORD-3, we analysed data for children (aged 0–14 years) and adults (aged 15–99 years) diagnosed with a haematological malignancy during 2000–14 in 61 countries. Here, we aimed to examine worldwide trends in survival from leukaemia, by age and morphology, in young patients (aged 0–24 years). Methods: We analysed data from 258 population-based cancer registries in 61 countries participating in CONCORD-3 that submitted data on patients diagnosed with leukaemia. We grouped patients by age as children (0–14 years), adolescents (15–19 years), and young adults (20–24 years). We categorised leukaemia subtypes according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3), updated with International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition (ICD-O-3) codes. We estimated 5-year net survival by age and morphology, with 95% CIs, using the non-parametric Pohar-Perme estimator. To control for background mortality, we used life tables by country or region, single year of age, single calendar year and sex, and, where possible, by race or ethnicity. All-age survival estimates were standardised to the marginal distribution of young people with leukaemia included in the analysis. Findings: 164 563 young people were included in this analysis: 121 328 (73·7%) children, 22 963 (14·0%) adolescents, and 20 272 (12·3%) young adults. In 2010–14, the most common subtypes were lymphoid leukaemia (28 205 [68·2%] patients) and acute myeloid leukaemia (7863 [19·0%] patients). Age-standardised 5-year net survival in children, adolescents, and young adults for all leukaemias combined during 2010–14 varied widely, ranging from 46% in Mexico to more than 85% in Canada, Cyprus, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, and Australia. Individuals with lymphoid leukaemia had better age-standardised survival (from 43% in Ecuador to ≥80% in parts of Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia) than those with acute myeloid leukaemia (from 32% in Peru to ≥70% in most high-income countries in Europe, North America, and Oceania). Throughout 2000–14, survival from all leukaemias combined remained consistently higher for children than adolescents and young adults, and minimal improvement was seen for adolescents and young adults in most countries. Interpretation: This study offers the first worldwide picture of population-based survival from leukaemia in children, adolescents, and young adults. Adolescents and young adults diagnosed with leukaemia continue to have lower survival than children. Trends in survival from leukaemia for adolescents and young adults are important indicators of the quality of cancer management in this age group

    Moving between the boundaries of physical and digital contexts: a case study about a shared project by a group of children

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    Children are immersed in a world that is characterized by the continuous interplay of physical and digital dimensions, material objects and virtual realities. This article is centered on an experience with a group of 9-11 year old children where they worked on a shared project that they created together from the beginning, based on the constant flow of ideas and cooperation between individuals, small groups and the larger group, in dialogue with time, between real and virtual dimensions. The role of the adult as an attentive, participatory observer, resource and co-researcher with the children created an inclusive, child-centered atmosphere which kept the children’s relationships and collaboration with each other at the heart of the experience. The digital realm was a resource and a material that enhanced the children’s play, their ideas and allowed them to give shape to their project by broadening their range of action and the expressive possibilities. Using digital materials and tools and the effects they produced created a playful, immersive and narrative setting which inspired the children to interact with, play with, study, design and modify a hybrid reality which was both physical and digital at the same time

    Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: Design and Characteristics of the First Nationwide Population-Based Cohort in Italy

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    Purpose: Adolescent and young adult (AYA, 15-39 years) cancer survivors (alive at least 5 years after cancer diagnosis) are less studied than younger and older cancer survivors and research on their late effects is limited. To facilitate research on long-term outcomes of AYA cancer survivors, we established, in Italy, a population-based AYA cancer survivors' cohort. This article describes the study design and main characteristics of this cohort.Methods: The cohort derives from population-based cancer registries (CRs). Each CR identified AYA cancer patients retrospectively. Treatment for first primary cancer and all health events from diagnosis to death can be traced through linkage with available health databases, such as hospital discharge records (HDRs), mortality files, and outpatient and pharmaceutical databases.Results: Thirty-four CRs participated to the cohort which overall includes 93,291 AYAs with cancer and 67,692 cancer survivors. First primary cancer distribution in AYA cancer survivors differs by sex and age groups because of the different cancer types diagnosed in AYAs. Almost 78% of AYA cancer survivors have HDRs and 14.8% also pharmaceutical and outpatient databases.Conclusion: This cohort will be used to study, for the first time in Italy, the pattern and excess risk of late effects in AYA cancer survivors. HDRs, outpatient and pharmaceutical databases will be used to define primary treatment to assess its impact on AYA cancer survivors' late effects. This cohort exploiting data sources already available at CRs, minimize the data collection effort and it will contribute to assess the feasibility of using administrative database to study cancer survivors' late effects
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