31 research outputs found

    New records of Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae) collected on pig carrion in Portugal with additional data on the distribution of F. conspecta Rudzinski, 2003

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    During a study of arthropod succession on pig carrion in Portugal eleven species of Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Fanniidae) were collected, of which F. aequilineata Ringdahl, F. armata (Meigen) and F. pusio (Wiedemann) are new records for Portugal, F. consepcta Rudzinski and F. lineata (Stein) are newly recorded for the whole Iberian Peninsula and F. tunisiae Chillcott is for the first time reported from the continental Europe. Additional information on the occurrence of F. conspecta in Czech Republic, Denmark, Greece, and Southern Russia are presented. The number of Fanniidae distributed throughout the Iberian Peninsula raises from 35 to 38 and the number of species reported from Portugal raises from 11 to 17

    Seasonal carrion Diptera and Coleoptera communities from Lisbon (Portugal) and the utility of forensic entomology in legal medicine

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    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Ecologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ci√™ncias, 2011The analysis of the community of insects present on a decomposing body can often provide valuable forensic insights, especially the estimation of the time of death, or postmortem interval (PMI). Due to the geographical variation of the communities of insects, Forensic Entomology is a locality-specific science; composition of local carrion fauna, its seasonal variations and patterns of succession, as well as the periods of time each life stage spends on a cadaver, comprise crucial information to be used in forensic cases of a particular region. In order to collect this information for Lisbon region, decomposition studies conducted with piglet carcasses were used to determine Diptera and Coleoptera activity during the four seasons of the year. A modified Schoenly trap was used to collect the entomofauna. In all seasons, Calliphoridae (Diptera) was the dominant family. Calliphora vicina, C. vomitoria, Chrysomya albiceps, Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar and L. sericata were fundamental members of the community, voraciously consuming the cadaver in the initial stages of decomposition. Hydrotaea ignava, Muscina prolapsa, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Muscidae), Piophila megastigmata, Stearibia nigriceps (Piophilidae) and Nemopoda nitidula (Sepsidae) were also relevant among the community. Coleoptera species were generally more associated to advanced decomposition stages and mostly acting as predators. Anotylus complanatus, Atheta pertyi, Creophilus maxillosus, Oligota pusillima, Philonthus varians (Staphylinidae), Margarinotus brunneus, Saprinus spp. (Histeridae), Thanatophilus spp. (Silphidae), Necrobia spp. (Cleridae) and Dermestes spp. (Dermestidae) were important members of the community as well. The present results highlight the particularities of our local fauna and its dynamics in the cadaver, compared with other regions and the need to have a deeper knowledge of regional carrion insects, in order to offer a committed contribute to forensic investigations. This work also marks the first record of more than 50 Diptera and 7 Coleoptera species in Portugal, an important contribution for the knowledge of this fauna in the country.A Entomologia forense baseia-se na sequ√™ncia de apari√ß√£o de insectos no cad√°ver e tamb√©m no reconhecimento do grau de desenvolvimento dos est√°dios imaturos das diferentes esp√©cies. Os insectos s√£o usados em investiga√ß√Ķes forenses, especialmente para estimar o tempo decorrido ap√≥s a morte ou intervalo postmortem (IPM). A vantagem deste m√©todo, em compara√ß√£o com outros procedimentos usados em Medicina Legal √© a sua precis√£o, mesmo em estados avan√ßados de decomposi√ß√£o (depois de quatro a cinco dias postmortem), onde os m√©todos tradicionais falham. Logo que um animal (ser humano inclu√≠do) morre, uma grande diversidade de d√≠pteros s√£o imediatamente atra√≠dos para o corpo, atrav√©s de odores espec√≠ficos. A postura de ovos (oviposi√ß√£o) no cad√°ver marca o in√≠cio de um rel√≥gio biol√≥gico que √© usado por entom√≥logos forenses para estimar o IPM. Dois m√©todos podem ser utilizados: 1) a estimativa da idade dos insectos imaturos que se alimentam do cad√°ver, de acordo com seu grau de desenvolvimento, e 2) a an√°lise da comunidade de insectos presentes. O segundo m√©todo requer uma base de dados precisa da comunidade de insectos espec√≠fica do local e um bom conhecimento dos padr√Ķes de sucess√£o, baseados em estudos experimentais regionais, com carca√ßas de porcos. As esp√©cies de insectos e o seu padr√£o de coloniza√ß√£o de cad√°veres variam de acordo com v√°rios factores, um dos mais importantes sendo a regi√£o geogr√°fica ou zona biogeoclim√°tica. Esta, define o habitat, vegeta√ß√£o, tipo de solo e condi√ß√Ķes meteorol√≥gicas da √°rea que, obviamente, t√™m um enorme impacto nos tipo e esp√©cies de insectos presentes, assim como na sua disponibilidade sazonal. Por este motivo, devem ser elaboradas bases de dados para cada regi√£o geogr√°fica em que os insectos s√£o usados em Entomologia forense. A tese de doutoramento aqui apresentada baseia-se no estudo da fauna entomol√≥gica associada a cad√°veres (porcos), com o objectivo de caracterizar a comunidade de d√≠pteros e cole√≥pteros e o seu padr√£o de sucess√£o nas diferentes esta√ß√Ķes do ano, em Lisboa. O cap√≠tulo 1 consiste numa introdu√ß√£o geral sobre v√°rios aspectos relacionados com a Entomologia forense, nomeadamente a decomposi√ß√£o de cad√°veres, a forma como os insectos se relacionam com este recurso e a determina√ß√£o do IPM. √Č feita uma breve retrospectiva hist√≥rica sobre esta ci√™ncia e o seu panorama actual, em diferentes linhas de investiga√ß√£o. S√£o delineados os objectivos da presente tese e a metodologia utilizada. No cap√≠tulo 2 √© descrita a metodologia utilizada neste trabalho. A armadilha usada para a captura dos insectos associados a cad√°veres √© baseada num modelo que foi previamente descrito; o facto de se terem introduzido diversas modifica√ß√Ķes e a simplifica√ß√£o da descri√ß√£o da sua constru√ß√£o, levou a considerar-se relevante a elabora√ß√£o do artigo apresentado. O cap√≠tulo 3 centra-se no estudo da composi√ß√£o espec√≠fica, comunidade e padr√£o de sucess√£o dos d√≠pteros capturados nos cad√°veres animais. S√£o focadas as diferen√ßas no processo de decomposi√ß√£o, consoante as condi√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas (esta√ß√Ķes do ano), a sazonalidade das esp√©cies e a sua associa√ß√£o aos diferentes est√°dios de decomposi√ß√£o. O conhecimento sobre d√≠pteros, em particular d√≠pteros associados a cad√°veres, √© muito escasso em Portugal. O trabalho realizado revelou-se extraordinariamente interessante a n√≠vel faun√≠stico, pela quantidade de novas esp√©cies para Portugal e inclusivamente para a Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica. No cap√≠tulo 4 s√£o registadas as novidades faun√≠sticas relativas √† fam√≠lia Calliphoridae (Diptera), o grupo de insectos de maior import√Ęncia forense. Para cada esp√©cie, √© feita uma revis√£o da ecologia e distribui√ß√£o geogr√°fica. O cap√≠tulo 5 diz respeito a uma outra esp√©cie de Calliphoridae - Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), tamb√©m registada pela primeira vez para Portugal. Enquanto que para as outras esp√©cies da mesma fam√≠lia (cap√≠tulo 4), a sua presen√ßa no nosso territ√≥rio seria expect√°vel, e em alguns casos √≥bvia (embora n√£o pudesse ser apoiada com qualquer registo bibliogr√°fico), o caso da C. megacephala √© diferente, tratando-se de uma introdu√ß√£o recente na nossa fauna. √Č de prever que esta esp√©cie, quando bem estabelecida, venha a ter um papel relevante a n√≠vel forense, dada a sua capacidade de expans√£o e car√°cter dominante, descrito noutras regi√Ķes geogr√°ficas. No cap√≠tulo 6 s√£o descritas as novidades para Portugal, relativas √† fam√≠lia Piophilidae (Diptera). Estes d√≠pteros est√£o associados a fases tardias da decomposi√ß√£o, sendo ainda relativamente pouco estudados. Durante o doutoramento, para al√©m dos estudos de campo, com modelos animais, foi efectuada a an√°lise de insectos recolhidos de cad√°veres humanos, provenientes de diversos casos forenses do Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal. A presen√ßa da esp√©cie Piophila megastigmata McAlpine, 1978 (Piophilidae), em dois desses casos marca o primeiro registo deste d√≠ptero em cad√°veres humanos, a n√≠vel mundial. √Č este o t√≥pico do cap√≠tulo 7. O cap√≠tulo 8 centra-se no estudo da composi√ß√£o espec√≠fica, comunidade e padr√£o de sucess√£o dos cole√≥pteros capturados nos cad√°veres animais. A abordagem ao estudo dos cole√≥pteros √© similar √† feita no cap√≠tulo 3, para os d√≠pteros. O cap√≠tulo 9, para al√©m de registar 5 novas esp√©cies de Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) para Portugal, providencia a listagem de esp√©cies recolhidas desta fam√≠lia, que foi a mais abundante e biodiversa, de entre a ordem Coleoptera, no ecossistema cadav√©rico. O cap√≠tulo 10 apresenta uma discuss√£o geral, integrando os resultados obtidos ao longo dos estudos referidos, terminando com sugest√Ķes para an√°lises futuras, de forma a aprofundar o conhecimento nas diversas √°reas abordadas, assim como em novas linhas de investiga√ß√£o. Para al√©m dos interessantes resultados faun√≠sticos obtidos, neste trabalho, foram claramente identificadas as esp√©cies de maior interesse forense na regi√£o estudada. No caso dos d√≠pteros, foram esp√©cies que usaram o cad√°ver para o seu desenvolvimento larvar, tratando-se portanto de esp√©cies necr√≥fagas; a maioria dos cole√≥pteros comportaram-se como predadores ‚Äď este comportamento justifica de forma geral a maior abund√Ęncia e riqueza espec√≠fica de d√≠pteros em fases iniciais da decomposi√ß√£o e de cole√≥pteros em fases mais avan√ßadas. Nos dois grupos verificou-se uma altern√Ęncia sazonal das esp√©cies e respectivas abund√Ęncias. Foi poss√≠vel demonstrar, tanto nos d√≠pteros como nos cole√≥pteros, que as comunidades presentes nos cad√°veres s√£o claramente diferentes nos diferentes est√°dios de decomposi√ß√£o. Um aspecto que √© discutido relativamente √† divis√£o da decomposi√ß√£o em est√°dios, √© que esta √© uma divis√£o artificial, sendo a decomposi√ß√£o um processo cont√≠nuo; √© portanto interessante que se tenha verificado que as comunidades destes insectos tamb√©m ‚Äúseparem‚ÄĚ os diferentes est√°dios de decomposi√ß√£o, para al√©m da diferencia√ß√£o feita visualmente, com base no aspecto do cad√°ver. Os resultados obtidos, naturalmente revelam diferen√ßas na fauna sarcosapr√≥faga, relativamente a outras regi√Ķes geogr√°ficas. Inclusivamente essas diferen√ßas s√£o not√≥rias mesmo dentro da Pen√≠nsula Ib√©rica; no caso dos d√≠pteros, embora a composi√ß√£o espec√≠fica das comunidades n√£o seja muito diferente de outros locais, esp√©cies muito relevantes em Lisboa, como Lucilia caesar (Linnaeus, 1758), Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve, 1922 e Hydrotaea ignava (Harris, 1758) n√£o o s√£o, nomeadamente, na maior parte do territ√≥rio espanhol; relativamente aos cole√≥pteros, √† excep√ß√£o de algumas esp√©cies cosmopolitas, em particular as esp√©cies das fam√≠lias Staphylinidae e Histeridae demonstraram ser de car√°cter geograficamente delimitado, sustentando a perspectiva de que estudos regionais s√£o fundamentais nesta √°rea do conhecimento. Com este trabalho, atrav√©s do estudo da comunidade de insectos, da sua sazonalidade e sucess√£o na zona de Lisboa, atrav√©s da identifica√ß√£o de esp√©cies indicadoras forenses, associadas aos diferentes est√°dios de decomposi√ß√£o de um cad√°ver, pretendemos contribuir para a obten√ß√£o de informa√ß√£o biol√≥gica na qual o desenvolvimento sustentado da Entomologia forense se deve basear.Funda√ß√£o para a Ci√™ncia e a Tecnologia (FCT, SFRH/BD/23066/2005

    Primer registro de Malacomyia sciomyzina (Haliday, 1833) (Diptera, Coelopidae) en Portugal continental, con notas sobre su ciclo de vida

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    Este art√≠culo reporta el primer registro de una poblaci√≥n establecida de la mosca de las algas¬†Malacomyia sciomyzina¬†(Haliday, 1833) (Diptera, Coelopidae) en la playa de Barra, Aveiro, Portugal. Un total de 17 espec√≠menes fueron capturados con redes de barrido sobre las algas marinas de la zona intermareal dominadas por¬†Fucus¬†sp. y con la presencia del jacinto de agua invasivo¬†Eichhornia crassipes¬†(Mart) Solms. Los individuos de esta especie fueron observados durante el oto√Īo, sobrevolando las algas marinas en esta zona costera. Los individuos adultos fueron colectados y criados bajo condiciones controladas en un insectario, utilizando el alga parda¬†Fucus¬†sp. como sustrato. El ciclo de vida se complet√≥ en aproximadamente 5 semanas a 15¬ļC. Entre los espec√≠menes emergidos se observaron grandes variaciones de longitud, tanto en machos como en hembras

    El raro chinche de las marismas Teratocoris antennatus (Boheman, 1852) (Hemiptera, Miridae), nueva especie para Portugal

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    Ria de Aveiro costal lagoon is a socio-ecological system framed between the land and the sea. The lagoon is embedded in a biodiversity rich landscape mosaic comprising beaches, dunes, sandflats, mudflats, seagrasses, and small water channels, and is one of the largest saltmarsh areas in Portugal and in Europe, supporting coastal food webs and providing nursery areas for several species. Despite being a Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site and integrating the Natura 2000 network, few systematic studies have been carried on its entomofauna. In this work, field collections were carried in seven locations along Ria de Aveiro saltmarsh areas by sweep-netting the dominating halophyte vegetation in September 2020. From these collections, Teratocoris antennatus (Boheman, 1852), a rare marsh bug, is reported for the first time for Portugal

    intraspecific geometric morphometric analysis of wings of the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

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    Funding Information: Luis Marques is acknowledged for his help with the images and Ana Catarina Fialho for her assistance in the field collection. The authors are grateful to the technical imaging support of Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon's Microscopy Facility which is a node of the Portuguese Platform of BioImaging, reference PPBI-POCI-01-0145-FEDER-022122 , and to FCT/MCTES for financial support to CESAM ( UIDP/50017/2020 + UIDB/50017/2020 + LA/P/0094/2020 ), to CIISA by Project UIDB/00276/2020 , to GHTM ( UID/04413/2020 ) and CE3C ( UIBD/00329/2020 ). Publisher Copyright: © 2022 Elsevier B.V.Blowflies have forensic, sanitary and veterinary importance, as well as being pollinators, parasitoids and ecological bioindicators. There is still little work with real data and from experiments assessing the relationship between blowflies’ morphologic features and environmental and demographic factors. The present work tests whether the variation, in the shape and size, of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) wings is influenced by the following factors: 1) time; 2) temperature; 3) sex and; 4) different types of carcasses (pig, dog/cat and whale). Male and female wings from four different sites collected in six different years were used to obtain wing size and shape of C. albiceps. Analyses between wing shape and the variables tested had low explanatory power, even though they had statistical support. However, it was possible to identify differences in wing shape between males and females, with good returns in sex identification. The comparison between wing size and the variables tested showed that wing size has a negative relationship with temperature, significant differences between sexes, slight variation over time and no influence by carcass types. Furthermore, wing size influenced wing shape. Understanding population-specific characteristics of C. albiceps provide important insights about how the species reacts under specific conditions.publishersversionpublishe

    The blowflies of the Madeira Archipelago: species diversity, distribution and identification (Diptera, Calliphoridae s. l.)

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    Knowledge on the taxonomic diversity and distribution of blowflies from the Madeira Archipelago is updated. New and interesting findings are reported for poorly studied islands and islets of this archipelago, together with a brief analysis of the diversity of Macaronesian Calliphoridae s. l. Seven blowfly species were collected during this study, including the first records of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826), Pollenia rudis (Fabricius, 1794) and Stomorhina lunata (Fabricius, 1805) from Porto Santo, and of C. vicina, L. sericata and S. lunata from Desertas Islands. The presence of Calliphora loewi Enderlein, 1903 in Madeira Laurisilva forest is discussed and its first instar larva is redescribed, revealing important differences in relation to its original description. An identification key to the adult Madeiran blowflies is provided for the first time.This study was financed by Portuguese National Funds, through FCT ‚Äď Funda√ß√£o para a Ci√™ncia e a Tecnologia, within the projects PTDC/BIABEC/99138/2008, UID/BIA/00329/2013 and also by FCT/MEC through national funds and the co-funding by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement, and COMPETE 2020, within the project UID/BIA/04004/2013. KS was supported by a project of the Polish National Science Centre (2012/07/B/NZ8/00158), while CR and MB were supported by FCT grants (SFRH/BPD/91357/2012 and SFRH/BPD/86215/2012, respectively)

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear un derstanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5‚Äď7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8‚Äď11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world‚Äôs most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepre sented in biodiversity databases.13‚Äď15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may elim inate pieces of the Amazon‚Äôs biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological com munities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple or ganism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region‚Äôs vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most ne glected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lostinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Pervasive gaps in Amazonian ecological research

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    Biodiversity loss is one of the main challenges of our time,1,2 and attempts to address it require a clear understanding of how ecological communities respond to environmental change across time and space.3,4 While the increasing availability of global databases on ecological communities has advanced our knowledge of biodiversity sensitivity to environmental changes,5,6,7 vast areas of the tropics remain understudied.8,9,10,11 In the American tropics, Amazonia stands out as the world's most diverse rainforest and the primary source of Neotropical biodiversity,12 but it remains among the least known forests in America and is often underrepresented in biodiversity databases.13,14,15 To worsen this situation, human-induced modifications16,17 may eliminate pieces of the Amazon's biodiversity puzzle before we can use them to understand how ecological communities are responding. To increase generalization and applicability of biodiversity knowledge,18,19 it is thus crucial to reduce biases in ecological research, particularly in regions projected to face the most pronounced environmental changes. We integrate ecological community metadata of 7,694 sampling sites for multiple organism groups in a machine learning model framework to map the research probability across the Brazilian Amazonia, while identifying the region's vulnerability to environmental change. 15%‚Äď18% of the most neglected areas in ecological research are expected to experience severe climate or land use changes by 2050. This means that unless we take immediate action, we will not be able to establish their current status, much less monitor how it is changing and what is being lost

    Diversity of the Formicidae (Hymenoptera) carrion communities in Lisbon (Portugal): preliminary approach as seasonal and geographic indicators

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    The value of the Formicidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) community in forensic investigations is poorly studied in Portugal. In order to better understand the structure and dynamics of this group of insects in cadavers and their putative value in forensic investigations, studies were carried out in Lisbon area during one year. Piglet carcasses were used as a model of human decomposition. The entomofauna attracted to the carcasses was collected over a period of about 2 months in each season of the year. The collection of ants was performed at regular intervals, daily in the first 23 days and then with intervals of 2, 3 or 5 days until the end of the experiment. Five stages of cadaveric decomposition were recognized with the ants being present in all of them. Three hundred and nine specimens were captured: 7 in autumn, 6 in winter, 90 in spring and 206 in summer. These specimens belong to three subfamilies and seven different species. Four of them had never been mentioned before as being associated to cadavers in this geographical area. Spring and summer had the greater diversity of species and a larger number of individuals. Temnothorax luteus was the dominant species in spring and Tapinoma nigerrimum in summer. Corroborating the information of other similar studies carried out in the Iberian Peninsula, the sarcosaprophagous Formicidae community found in Lisbon is unique and different from other studied locations, which supports the need to perform regional studies. Our results shown that ants do not present a definite pattern of succession, but some species have the potential to be seasonal or geographic indicators
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