15,364 research outputs found

    Generalized hydrodynamics of a dilute finite-sized particles suspension: Dynamic viscosity

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    We present a mesoscopic hydrodynamic description of the dynamics of colloidal suspensions. We consider the system as a gas of Brownian particles suspended in a Newtonian heat bath subjected to stationary non-equilibrium conditions imposed by a velocity field. Using results already obtained in previous studies in the field by means of a generalized Fokker-Planck equation, we obtain a set of coupled differential equations for the local diffusion current and the evolution of the total stress tensor. We find that the dynamic shear viscosity of the system contains contributions arising from the finite size of the particles.Comment: To appear in Physical Review

    Time reparametrization invariance in arbitrary range p-spin models: symmetric versus non-symmetric dynamics

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    We explore the existence of time reparametrization symmetry in p-spin models. Using the Martin-Siggia-Rose generating functional, we analytically probe the long-time dynamics. We perform a renormalization group analysis where we systematically integrate over short timescale fluctuations. We find three families of stable fixed points and study the symmetry of those fixed points with respect to time reparametrizations. One of those families is composed entirely of symmetric fixed points, which are associated with the low temperature dynamics. The other two families are composed entirely of non-symmetric fixed points. One of these two non-symmetric families corresponds to the high temperature dynamics. Time reparametrization symmetry is a continuous symmetry that is spontaneously broken in the glass state and we argue that this gives rise to the presence of Goldstone modes. We expect the Goldstone modes to determine the properties of fluctuations in the glass state, in particular predicting the presence of dynamical heterogeneity.Comment: v2: Extensively modified to discuss both high temperature (non-symmetric) and low temperature (symmetric) renormalization group fixed points. Now 16 pages with 1 figure. v1: 13 page

    A comparison between PML, infinite elements and an iterative BEM as mesh truncation methods for HP self-adaptive procedures in electromagnetics

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    Finite element hp-adaptivity is a technology that allows for very accurate numerical solutions. When applied to open region problems such as radar cross section prediction or antenna analysis, a mesh truncation method needs to be used. This paper compares the following mesh truncation methods in the context of hp-adaptive methods: Infinite Elements, Perfectly Matched Layers and an iterative boundary element based methodology. These methods have been selected because they are exact at the continuous level (a desirable feature required by the extreme accuracy delivered by the hp-adaptive strategy) and they are easy to integrate with the logic of hp-adaptivity. The comparison is mainly based on the number of degrees of freedom needed for each method to achieve a given level of accuracy. Computational times are also included. Two-dimensional examples are used, but the conclusions directly extrapolated to the three dimensional case

    Effect of Roughness in the Development of an Adverse Pressure Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer

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    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the development of an adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. Hot-wire anemometry measurements were carried out using single and x-wire probes in the APG region of an open return type wind tunnel test section. The same experimental conditions (i.e. T∞, Uref, and Cp) are maintained between the smooth, k+= 0, and rough, k+= 41-60, cases. Results indicate that the mean velocity deficit and Reynolds stress profiles tend to increase with surface roughness. These effects of roughness were successfully removed from the outer mean velocity profiles using the Zagarola and Smits scaling, U∞δ*/δ. Using the integrated boundary layer equation, the skin friction was computed and showed a 58% increase due to the surface roughness effect. The effects of pressure gradient were found to be significant, of which, different profile trends with similar magnitudes were found for outer Reynolds normal stresses scaled with U∞

    Dimensionalities of Weak Solutions in Hydrogenic Systems

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    A close inspection on the 3D hydrogen atom Hamiltonian revealed formal eigenvectors often discarded in the literature. Although not in its domain, such eigenvectors belong to the Hilbert space, and so their time evolution is well defined. They are then related to the 1D and 2D hydrogen atoms and it is numerically found that they have continuous components, so that ionization can take place

    Vulnerability curves for masonry buildings affected by hyperconcentrated flows as natural disaster risk management tools for the quantification of material damage

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    The damage assessment caused by floods, earthquakes, hurricanes among others phenomenons in the world are analyzed with methodologies such as "Vulnerability curves". In Peru, disasters caused by hyperconcentrated flows are alarming due to a climatic variability such as the "El Nio Costero"phenomenon. Therefore, this research has developed vulnerability curves for 1 and 2-story confined masonry buildings in Urb. San Idelfonso, Ica - Peru; linking the variables: flow depth, associated with the event produced by heavy rains at the top of the "Quebrada Cansas"caused by the "El Nio Costero"phenomenon in 2017, and the percentage of the damage based on the methodology of the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), whose formula is the repair value and total building value. The monetary amounts and items of the buildings are obtained from the RM 415-2017-VIVIENDA of the Ministry of Housing, Construction and Sanitation of Peru. The process consisted of hydrological modeling in HEC-HMS, hydraulic modeling in FLO-2D, damage percentage estimate and vulnerability curves production. Finally, the vulnerability curves for hyperconcentrated flows were contrasted with similar studies regarding curves for flooding and debris flow. The results of the investigation showed that the "El Nio Costero"phenomenon in 2017 had an economic impact of at least 1.3 million soles in Urb. San Idelfonso. In addition, at least 24 buildings had a complete damage and 21 buildings an extensive damage

    Quasiclassical trajectory study of the dynamics of the H+N₂O reaction on a new potential energy surface

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    A new ab initiopotential energy surface (PES) for the H+N₂O→OH+N₂reaction has been constructed using the GROW package of Collins and co-workers. The ab initio calculations have been done using the Becke three-parameter nonlocal exchange functional with the nonlocal correlation of Lee, Yang, and Parr density functional theory. A detailed quasiclassical trajectory study of integral and differential cross sections, product rovibrational populations, and internal energy distributions on the new PES is presented. The theoretical integral cross sections as a function of collision energy are in qualitative agreement with the experimental measurements. A good correspondence is found between the calculated OH(v′=0,1) rovibrational populations and the recent measurements of Brouard and co-workers at 1.48 eV collision energy. In particular, the calculated kinetic energy release distributions for state resolved OH(v′,N′) products predict a substantial fraction of total energy going into rotational excitation of the N₂ co-product, in good agreement with the experimental findings.The Spanish part of this work has been financed by DGES of Spain (Project No. PB98-0762-C02-01) and by the European Commission within the RT Network Reaction Dynamics (Contract No. HPRN-CT-1999-00007)

    Evaluation of flexible barrier and sabo dam to control effects of debris flow in Santo Domingo Ravine

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    Coast of Peru is characterized for the presence of ephemeral creeks which drain water only on wet season. The extremely dry soil and pebble combined with precipitation produce debris flow in a seasonal geodynamic. This is the case of Santo Domingo ravine which is located at eastern Lima, and drains their water to Rimac River. In this article the vulnerability of villages near to Santo Domingo ravine by debris flow and use of flexible barrier and sabo dams are analyzed. In a first stage, the liquid hydrograph to a 100 years return period was built and a solid hydrograph, a relationship between volume concentration and time, was essayed. Then, both the liquid and the solid hydrograph are calibrated in a debris flow numerical model and the vulnerability map is built. Finally, this model is coupled to the Rimac River to analyze the possible damming effect. Calibration of numerical model was done in base to previous estimated volumes by Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). These first results permit to define high vulnerability zones which will be a reference to evaluate efficiency of control measures. In a second stage, mitigation effects of flexible barriers application is simulated in base to Debris Flow Barrier from Geobrugg®. Also, application of sabo dams was evaluated to by using “Kanako” debris flow simulator from Laboratory of Erosion Control, Division of Forest Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, & SABO Technical Center. Results permit to evaluate efficiency and select the more economical option