431 research outputs found

    Optimizing single-photon-source heralding efficiency at 1550 nm using periodically poled lithium niobate

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    We explore the feasibility of using high conversion-efficiency periodically-poled crystals to produce photon pairs for photon-counting detector calibrations at 1550 nm. The goal is the development of an appropriate parametric down-conversion (PDC) source at telecom wavelengths meeting the requirements of high-efficiency pair production and collection in single spectral and spatial modes (single-mode fibers). We propose a protocol to optimize the photon collection, noise levels and the uncertainty evaluation. This study ties together the results of our efforts to model the single-mode heralding efficiency of a two-photon PDC source and to estimate the heralding uncertainty of such a source.Comment: 14 pages, 2 tables and 3 figures, final version accepted by Metrologi

    Single Photon Source with Individualized Single Photon Certifications

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    As currently implemented, single-photon sources cannot be made to produce single photons with high probability, while simultaneously suppressing the probability of yielding two or more photons. Because of this, single photon sources cannot really produce single photons on demand. We describe a multiplexed system that allows the probabilities of producing one and more photons to be adjusted independently, enabling a much better approximation of a source of single photons on demand. The scheme uses a heralded photon source based on parametric downconversion, but by effectively breaking the trigger detector area into multiple regions, we are able to extract more information about a heralded photon than is possible with a conventional arrangement. This scheme allows photons to be produced along with a quantitative ``certification'' that they are single photons. Some of the single-photon certifications can be significantly better than what is possible with conventional downconversion sources (using a unified trigger detector region), as well as being better than faint laser sources. With such a source of more tightly certified single photons, it should be possible to improve the maximum secure bit rate possible over a quantum cryptographic link. We present an analysis of the relative merits of this method over the conventional arrangement.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, SPIE Free-Space Laser Communication and Laser Imaging II. To appear in the proceeding of SPIE Free-Space Laser Communication and Laser Imaging II, vol 482

    Imaging and quantum efficiency measurement of chromium emitters in diamond

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    We present direct imaging of the emission pattern of individual chromium-based single photon emitters in diamond and measure their quantum efficiency. By imaging the excited state transition dipole intensity distribution in the back focal plane of high numerical aperture objective, we determined that the emission dipole is oriented nearly orthogonal to the diamond-air interface. Employing ion implantation techniques, the emitters were engineered with various proximities from the diamond-air interface. By comparing the decay rates from the single chromium emitters at different depths in the diamond crystal, an average quantum efficiency of 28% was measured.Comment: 11 pages and 4 figure

    Hyperbolic Metamaterial Resonator-Antenna Scheme for Large, Broadband Emission Enhancement and Single Photon Collection

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    We model the broadband enhancement of single-photon emission from color centres in silicon carbide nanocrystals coupled to a planar hyperbolic metamaterial, HMM resonator. The design is based on positioning the single photon emitters within the HMM resonator, made of a dielectric index-matched with silicon-carbide material. The broadband response results from the successive resonance peaks of the lossy Fabry Perot structure modes arising within the high-index HMM cavity. To capture this broadband enhancement in the single photon emitters spontaneous emission, we placed a simple gold based cylindrical antenna on top of the HMM resonator. We analyzed the performance of this HMM coupled antenna structure in terms of the Purcell enhancement, quantum efficiency, collection efficiency and overall collected photon rate. For perpendicular dipole orientation relative to the interface, the HMM coupled antenna resonator leads to a significantly large spontaneous emission enhancement with Purcell factor of the order of 250 along with a very high average total collected photon rate, CPR of about 30 over a broad emission spectrum, 700 nm to 1000 nm. The peak CPR increases to about 80 at 900 nm, corresponding to the emission of silicon-carbide quantum emitters. This is a state of the art improvement considering the previous computational designs have reported a maximum average CPR of 25 across the nitrogen-vacancy centre emission spectrum, 600 nm to 800 nm with the highest value being about 40 at 650 nm

    Heralded single photon sources: a route towards quantum communication technology and photon standards

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    Single photon counting, based on single photon sources and detectors, is a key ingredient for certain applications aiming at new quantum information technologies. Quantum cryptography, quantum radiometry, distributed quantum computing, as well as adjacent technologies such as biomedical and astronomical imaging, and low power classical communication also rely on single-photon technology. This paper reviews the present status of single photon sources and related counting measurement techniques, based on correlated (or heralded) photons in parametric down-conversion, and their possible impact on the above mentioned technologies, as well as an assessment for photon standards in the future

    Radiative and nonradiative decay rates in chromium-related centers in nanodiamonds

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    We address for the first time the measurement of nonradiative decay rates in Cr-related centers in nanodiamonds. Compared to our previous quantum efficiency measurement of Cr centers created in bulk diamond, separate measurements of radiative and nonradiative decay rates in grown nanodiamonds prove more challenging due to size dependence effects. We demonstrate in this Letter that, using defocused dipole imaging and collection efficiency calculation via finite-difference time-domain (FDTD), a quantum efficiency up to 0.9 can be inferred to Cr-related centers showing a 2-level system photon statistic

    Nonlinear multigrid based on local spectral coarsening for heterogeneous diffusion problems

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    This work develops a nonlinear multigrid method for diffusion problems discretized by cell-centered finite volume methods on general unstructured grids. The multigrid hierarchy is constructed algebraically using aggregation of degrees of freedom and spectral decomposition of reference linear operators associated with the aggregates. For rapid convergence, it is important that the resulting coarse spaces have good approximation properties. In our approach, the approximation quality can be directly improved by including more spectral degrees of freedom in the coarsening process. Further, by exploiting local coarsening and a piecewise-constant approximation when evaluating the nonlinear component, the coarse level problems are assembled and solved without ever re-visiting the fine level, an essential element for multigrid algorithms to achieve optimal scalability. Numerical examples comparing relative performance of the proposed nonlinear multigrid solvers with standard single-level approaches -- Picard's and Newton's methods -- are presented. Results show that the proposed solver consistently outperforms the single-level methods, both in efficiency and robustness

    The U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS): A Prototype User Valuation

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    The Integrated Ocean Observing System of the United States provides a large variety of oceanographic and related data at no charge through 11 Regional Associations. Since the data is distributed without price it is difficult to determine the economic value of the data. That value is useful in explaining and justifying the investment in ocean observing. This study applies discrete choice modeling to determine valuation of the data for users of data through the RA websites. The study found annual values of 190to190 to 220 million, and these estimates are considered highly conservative. A guide for replication of the valuation study is included

    Quantum and Classical Noise in Practical Quantum Cryptography Systems based on polarization-entangled photons

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    Quantum-cryptography key distribution (QCKD) experiments have been recently reported using polarization-entangled photons. However, in any practical realization, quantum systems suffer from either unwanted or induced interactions with the environment and the quantum measurement system, showing up as quantum and, ultimately, statistical noise. In this paper, we investigate how ideal polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) suffers quantum noise in its practical implementation as a secure quantum system, yielding errors in the transmitted bit sequence. Because all SPDC-based QCKD schemes rely on the measurement of coincidence to assert the bit transmission between the two parties, we bundle up the overall quantum and statistical noise in an exhaustive model to calculate the accidental coincidences. This model predicts the quantum-bit error rate and the sifted key and allows comparisons between different security criteria of the hitherto proposed QCKD protocols, resulting in an objective assessment of performances and advantages of different systems.Comment: Rev Tex Style, 2 columns, 7 figures, (a modified version will appear on PRA
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